State Violence And Legitimacy In India Pdf

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The panel has noted major disparities in the extent of involvement of minority youth, particularly black youth, compared with white youth in the juvenile justice system.

State (polity)

A state is a polity under a system of governance. There is no undisputed definition of a state. Some states are sovereign known as sovereign states , while others are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , wherein supreme authority lies in another state. In a federal union , the term "state" is sometimes used to refer to the federated polities that make up the federation. In international law , such entities are not considered states, which is a term that relates only to the national entity, commonly referred to as the country or nation.

Most of the human population has existed within a state system for millennia ; however, for most of prehistory people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5, years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities , invention of writing and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence such as divine right , the theory of the social contract , etc.

Today, the modern nation state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. The English noun state in the generic sense "condition, circumstances" predates the political sense. It is introduced to Middle English c. With the revival of the Roman law in 14th-century Europe, the term came to refer to the legal standing of persons such as the various " estates of the realm " — noble, common, and clerical , and in particular the special status of the king.

The highest estates, generally those with the most wealth and social rank, were those that held power. The word also had associations with Roman ideas dating back to Cicero about the " status rei publicae ", the "condition of public matters". In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.

The early 16th-century works of Machiavelli especially The Prince played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense. The North American colonies were called "states" as early as the s. There is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state.

Means-related definitions include those by Max Weber and Charles Tilly, both of whom define the state according to its violent means. For Weber, the state "is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory" Politics as a Vocation , while Tilly characterizes them as "coercion-wielding organisations" Coercion, Capital, and European States. Ends-related definitions emphasis instead the teleological aims and purposes of the state.

Marxist thought regards the ends of the state as being the perpetuation of class domination in favour of the ruling class which, under the capitalist mode of production, is the bourgeoisie. The state exists to defend the ruling class's claims to private property and its capturing of surplus profits at the expense of the proletariat. Indeed, Marx claimed that "the executive of the modern state is nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie" Communist Manifesto.

Liberal thought provides another possible teleology of the state. On this account, the state provides the basis for social cohesion and productivity, creating incentives for wealth creation by providing guarantees of protection for one's life, liberty and personal property.

Provision of public goods is considered by some such as Adam Smith [11] as a central function of the state, since these goods would otherwise be underprovided. The most commonly used definition is Max Weber 's, [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory. Another commonly accepted definition of the state is the one given at the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States in It provides that "[t]he state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: a a permanent population; b a defined territory; c government; and d capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary , a state is " a. Confounding the definition problem is that "state" and "government" are often used as synonyms in common conversation and even some academic discourse. According to this definition schema, the states are nonphysical persons of international law , governments are organizations of people. States may be classified by political philosophers as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state.

Other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation. Such states differ from sovereign states in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.

One can commonly and sometimes readily but not necessarily usefully classify states according to their apparent make-up or focus. The concept of the nation-state, theoretically or ideally co-terminous with a "nation", became very popular by the 20th century in Europe, but occurred rarely elsewhere or at other times.

In contrast, some states have sought to make a virtue of their multi-ethnic or multi-national character Habsburg Austria-Hungary , for example, or the Soviet Union , and have emphasised unifying characteristics such as autocracy , monarchical legitimacy , or ideology.

Other states, often fascist or authoritarian ones, promoted state-sanctioned notions of racial superiority. The concept of temple states centred on religious shrines occurs in some discussions of the ancient world. Modern-day independent city-states include Vatican City , Monaco , and Singapore. Other city-states survive as federated states, like the present day German city-states , or as otherwise autonomous entities with limited sovereignty, like Hong Kong , Gibraltar and Ceuta.

To some extent, urban secession , the creation of a new city-state sovereign or federated , continues to be discussed in the early 21st century in cities such as London. A state can be distinguished from a government. The state is the organization while the government is the particular group of people, the administrative bureaucracy that controls the state apparatus at a given time.

States are served by a continuous succession of different governments. Each successive government is composed of a specialized and privileged body of individuals, who monopolize political decision-making, and are separated by status and organization from the population as a whole. States can also be distinguished from the concept of a " nation ", where "nation" refers to a cultural-political community of people.

A nation-state refers to a situation where a single ethnicity is associated with a specific state. In the classical thought, the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community, while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Antonio Gramsci believed that civil society is the primary locus of political activity because it is where all forms of "identity formation, ideological struggle, the activities of intellectuals, and the construction of hegemony take place.

Arising out of the collective actions of civil society is what Gramsci calls "political society", which Gramsci differentiates from the notion of the state as a polity. He stated that politics was not a "one-way process of political management" but, rather, that the activities of civil organizations conditioned the activities of political parties and state institutions, and were conditioned by them in turn. Given the role that many social groups have in the development of public policy and the extensive connections between state bureaucracies and other institutions, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the boundaries of the state.

Privatization , nationalization , and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the state in relation to society. Often the nature of quasi-autonomous organizations is unclear, generating debate among political scientists on whether they are part of the state or civil society.

Some political scientists thus prefer to speak of policy networks and decentralized governance in modern societies rather than of state bureaucracies and direct state control over policy.

Most countries have two names , a protocol name and a geographical name or short name. The protocol name full name, formal name, official name e.

The long form official title is used when the state is targeted as a legal entity : e. The geographical name short name e. Workers residing in France. For certain states, the long form and the short form are identical: e. The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: agriculture because it allowed for the emergence of a social class of people who did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence, and writing or an equivalent of writing, like Inca quipus because it made possible the centralization of vital information.

The first known states were created in the Egypt , Mesopotamia , India , China , Mesoamerica , the Andes , and others, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative " stateless " forms of political organization of societies all over the planet. Initially states emerged over territories built by conquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy.

Since the late 19th century, virtually the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states.

However, even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness, like the Amazon rainforest , which are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people and some of them remain uncontacted. Also, there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. Currently the international community comprises around sovereign states , the vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations.

For most of human history, people have lived in stateless societies , characterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power. It is not enough to observe, in a now rather dated anthropological idiom, that hunter gatherers live in 'stateless societies', as though their social lives were somehow lacking or unfinished, waiting to be completed by the evolutionary development of a state apparatus.

Rather, the principal of their socialty, as Pierre Clastres has put it, is fundamentally against the state. During the Neolithic period, human societies underwent major cultural and economic changes, including the development of agriculture , the formation of sedentary societies and fixed settlements, increasing population densities, and the use of pottery and more complex tools.

Sedentary agriculture led to the development of property rights , domestication of plants and animals, and larger family sizes.

It also provided the basis for the centralized state form [52] by producing a large surplus of food, which created a more complex division of labor by enabling people to specialize in tasks other than food production. The ruling classes began to differentiate themselves through forms of architecture and other cultural practices that were different from those of the subordinate laboring classes.

In the past, it was suggested that the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems such as irrigation systems and to regulate complex economies. However, modern archaeological and anthropological evidence does not support this thesis, pointing to the existence of several non-stratified and politically decentralized complex societies. Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the location of the earliest civilization or complex society , meaning that it contained cities , full-time division of labor , social concentration of wealth into capital , unequal distribution of wealth , ruling classes, community ties based on residency rather than kinship , long distance trade , monumental architecture , standardized forms of art and culture, writing, and mathematics and science.

Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions.

Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths. Several important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history.

During Medieval times in Europe, the state was organized on the principle of feudalism , and the relationship between lord and vassal became central to social organization. Feudalism led to the development of greater social hierarchies.

The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society especially the nobility and the cities gave rise to what is now called the Standestaat , or the state of Estates, characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters.

These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and military power in his hands. Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gives rise to the absolutist state.

Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a national basis. The concept of a national state, however, is not synonymous with nation state.

Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation , hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity. Most political theories of the state can roughly be classified into two categories. The first are known as "liberal" or "conservative" theories, which treat capitalism as a given, and then concentrate on the function of states in capitalist society.

State, Violence, and Legitimacy in India

Deadly and disruptive as it already is, and terribly as it could yet worsen and spread, the coronavirus outbreak could also have political effects that last long after the contagion is contained. Crisis Group identifies seven points of particular concern. The COVID pandemic unquestionably presents an era-defining challenge to public health and the global economy. Its political consequences, both short- and long-term, are less well understood. The global outbreak has the potential to wreak havoc in fragile states, trigger widespread unrest and severely test international crisis management systems.

A state is a polity under a system of governance. There is no undisputed definition of a state. Some states are sovereign known as sovereign states , while others are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , wherein supreme authority lies in another state. In a federal union , the term "state" is sometimes used to refer to the federated polities that make up the federation. In international law , such entities are not considered states, which is a term that relates only to the national entity, commonly referred to as the country or nation.

Request PDF | State, Violence, and Legitimacy in India | How do people respond to a state that is violent towards its own citizens? In State.

Religion in China

How do people respond to a state that is violent towards its own citizens? In State, Violence, and Legitimacy in India, this question is addressed through insights offered by ethnographic explorations of everyday policing in Delhi and the anti-insurgency measures of the Indian army in Lakhipathar village in Assam. Battling the dominant understanding of the inverse connect between state legitimacy and use of violence, Santana Khanikar argues that use of violence does not necessarily detract from the legitimacy of the modern territorial nation-state. Based on extensive research of two sites, the

Live-In Relationship And Indian Judiciary

Freedom and Regulation

Religious observance in China is on the rise. Yet alongside these rights come heightened government controls. The practice of any other faith is formally prohibited, although often tolerated, especially in the case of traditional Chinese beliefs. Yet some independent reports suggest the number of religious adherents in China is far larger and is steadily increasing. The research and advocacy group Freedom House estimated in that there are more than million religious believers in China, primarily made up of Chinese Buddhists, followed by Protestants, Muslims, Falun Gong practitioners, Catholics, and Tibetan Buddhists. Many believers do not follow organized religion and are said to practice traditional folk religion. In practice, however, monitoring and crackdowns often target peaceful activities that are protected under international law, say human rights watchdogs.

It is being truly said that the only thing which is constant in this world is change. The Indian society has observed a drastic change in its living pattern in the past few years. People are slowly and gradually opening their minds towards the idea of pre-marital sex and live-in relationships. However, this change has been continuously under criticism and highly discussed as such concepts lack legality and acceptance by the society. Unlike marriage, in live-in relationships couples are not married to each other but live together under the same roof that resembles a relation like marriage.

COVID-19 and Conflict: Seven Trends to Watch

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In political science , legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority , usually a governing law or a regime. Whereas authority denotes a specific position in an established government, the term legitimacy denotes a system of government—wherein government denotes " sphere of influence ". An authority viewed as legitimate often has the right and justification to exercise power.

Legitimacy (political)

Беккер пожал плечами. Парень зашелся в истерическом хохоте.


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