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Benshoff, Sean Griffin From Thomas Edison's first cinematic experiments to contemporary Hollywood blockbusters, Queer Images chronicles the representation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer sexualities over one hundred years of American film. The most up-to-date and comprehensive book of its kind, it explores not only the ever-changing images of queer characters onscreen, but also the work of queer filmmakers and the cultural histories of queer audiences. Queer Images surveys a wide variety of films, individuals, and subcultures, including the work of discreetly homosexual filmmakers during Hollywood's Golden Age; classical Hollywood's failed attempt to purge "sex perversion" from films; the development of gay male camp in Hollywood cinema; queer exploitation films and gay physique films; the queerness of s Underground Film practice; independent lesbian documentaries and experimental films; cinematic responses to the AIDS crisis; the rise and impact of New Queer Cinema; the growth of LGBT film festivals; and how contemporary Hollywood deals with queer issues.
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Blackwell's publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.
The right of Harry M. Benshoff and Sean Griffin to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Designs and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic Formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
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Benshoff Harry M. America on film: representing race, class, gender, and sexuality at the movies I Harry M. Benshoff and Sean Griffin.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN pbk. Minorities in motion pictures. Motion pictures-United States-History. Set in 1O. Printers Pte Ltd. This chapter examines what Hollywood film is and how it developed. Hollywood film can be identified by a specific set of formal and stylistic structures as well as by a set of historical, industrial, and economic determinants. These underlying structures affect how HoLlywood films represent America, and how they conceive of issues of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability.
Because Hollywood film is so prevalent in American culture and world culture , many people think that the way Hollywood makes movies is the only way to do so - that there are no other pos- sible methods for making films.
However, there are many types of movies and many different ways to make them. As we shall see throughout this book, these other, non-Hollywood movies often present different representations of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability than do Hollywood films. Both Hollywood and non- Hollywood films have evolved since the beginning of the twentieth century, in conjunction with the broader social, political, and cultural events of American his- tory.
This chapter broadly addresses those concerns, and will lay the basis for future chapters' more detailed analyses of how these issues relate to specific cinematic representations of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability. Hollywood film refers to movies made and released by a handful of filmmaking companies located in and around Hollywood, California.
These companies have produced and distributed tens of thousands of films, films that have found long-term success at the box office, and often make it seem especially in other countries that Hollywood filim is American film. Hollywood's global predominance obscures its historical development, and in.
This is itself another example of ideology working to erase the socially constructed nature of a specific cultural institution: Hollywood gains strength and power by making Its formand practice seem to be basic common sense. Hollywood films so dominate American theaters and video-store shelvesand.
These non-Hollywood films are sometimes broadly referred to as independent films. For example, avant-garde or experimental films explore the multiple formal possibil- ities of cinema not just storytelling , and they are often tied to specific movements in the other arts, such as Surrealism. Documentaries are films that use actual events as their raw material - they are usually made without actors or fictional stories, and attempt to convey these events as realistically as possible.
Americans classify films made outside the United States as foreign films. They can be fictional films that look more or less like Hollywood films, or they can be avant-garde or docu- mentary films.
Finally, the term "independent film" also describes fictional feature films that are made in America, but outside the usual Hollywood channels. Broadly speaking, independent, foreign, avant-garde. Sometimes, to audiences weaned solely on Hollywood films, these types of films.
If avant-garde films for example were trying to play by the rules of Hollywood film, such judgments might havemerit, but these films have consciously decided to use other rules. These types of films make formal choices in mise-en-scene montage, sound, and narrative design that often differ vastly from those used in Hollywood films.
Unlike Hollywood filmmaking, sometimes these types of films are even made without the intention of turning a profit. Avent-garde and experimental films usually only play at museums, or in film classes at universities. Documentaries might play on television or at film festivals, or occasionally be screened at independent or art-house theaters, theaters usually located in urban areas that specialize in off-beat, non-Hollywood film fare. A well-stocked video store or an Internet DVD service are other places one might find these films.
Experimental films, documentaries, and independent fictional films are an import-. As might be expected, these types of films often differ from Hollywood films in the ways that they depict issues of race, class, gender, se. However, while One may in practice contrast fictional Hollywood film with fictional independent film, the distinction between thesetWO. Frequently there are similarities and connections between independent films and Hollywood. Sometimes successful independent filmmakers go on to sign deals with the major Hollywood companies, and many Hollywood employees dabble in independent filmmaking.
A popular independent film such as Quentin Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs may seem somewhat dif- ferent from most Hollywood films, but it is much closer to a Hollywood film in both subject matter and style than most experimental films. For the purposes of this book, Hollywood and independent film practice might.
One of the best ways to distinguish between independent and Hollywood films is to see where the film is playing. If it is play- ing on 3, screens in America at once, at every multiplex across the nation, it is probably a Hollywood film.
If it is playing at one theater in selected large cities, it is probably an independent film. Because Hollywood films reach far wider audi- ences than do most independent films much less avant-garde films or document- aries , it might be said that they have a greater ideological impact on American culture and arguably, the world. And although Hollywood film is not as popular a medium as it once was having been surpassed by television and even now com- peting with video games and the World Wide Web , Hollywood film remains a very powerful global influence.
As we hope to show, many of Hollywood's representational traditions have also car- ried over from its classical period to the present. The rest of this chapter examines how the style, business, and history of Hollywood have structured and continue to structure cinematic meaning, specifically the various meanings of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability.
Overthe first few decades of the twentieth century, Hollywood filmmakers developed a set of formal and stylistic conventions that came to be known as the classical Hollywood style. Recall that film form refers to specific cinematic elements such as mise-en-scene and editing; the term style refers to a specific way in which those formal elements are arranged.
Classical Hollywood style is not rigid and absolute - slight variations can be found in countless Hollywood films - but this way of cinematically telling stories is basically the same today as it was in the s.
And becauseHollywood's business practices have dominated both American and global cinema, classical Hollywood style is often considered the standard or "correct" way to make fictional films. The main objective of classicalHollywood style is to "spoon feed" story informa-. Hollywood filmmakers believe that that if some plot point or stylistic maneuver.
Classical Hollywood style is sometimes referred to as the invisible style, because it does. It permits the viewer to stay ernonon- ally enmeshed in a film's story and characters, instead of being distracted by obvi- ous formal devices or thinking too much about the ideological meanlIlgs of the text.
Indeed, when classical Hollywood style is working at its best, audiences are barely aware that any formal choices are being made at all: most untrained spectators don't consciously notice the lighting of the sets or the edits between shots. Obscuring the formal decisions not only keeps the viewer centered rather unthinkingly on following the story, but also limits the viewer's choice in what she or he is meant to find important.
Say, for example, a film shows a white busi- ness tycoon praising American capitalism while his black butler brings him a mint julep. A viewer might be interested in learning the butler's reaction to the tycoon's statement. However, if the camera does not keep the butler in fDClI , or never cuts to show the butler's reaction, then it becomes impossible to see what hi reaction might be.
In helping to keep things understandable, Hollywood's invisible style sub- tly eliminates complexity, and in this example, implicitly makes the white tycoon more important than his butler. All of the formal aspects of cinema under the classical Hollywood style work. Lighting, color, camera position, and other aspects of mise-en-scene consistently help the audi- ence remain engaged with the story.
The most important details are the ones most prominently [it, kept in focus, and framed in close-up shots. Hollywood films also employ various rules of continuity editing, a system of editing in which each shot follows easily and logically from the one before. If a per on looks over at some- thing, the next shot is of that something; if a person walks out of a room through a door, the next shot is of that same person coming through the door into a new room.
Sound design in Hollywood films also keeps audiences aware of the story's key points, often by making the main characters' dialog louder than the noise of the crowd around them. And the Hollywood film SCore is there to tell an audience exactly how they are supposed to feel about any given scene.
Style is thus subordinated to story in classical Hollywood style. The way. Hollywood films structure their stories is referred to as classical Hollywood nar- ratrve form. Flashbacks are an exception to this format, but they are always clearly marked- often With a shImmering dissolve - so as not to confuse the viewer. Hollywood narrative form usually centers on a singular h t.
SOmetulles the protagonist might be a family or a small group of people. Hollywood narrative also usu 1I. The differences between heroes and villains in Hollywood film are obvious and simplified. Sometimes, as in old-fashioned Westerns, the good guys even wear white hats while the villains wear black. Even when dealing with complex social issues, Hollywood usually reduces them to matters of personal character: in Hollywood filmsthere are rarely corrupt institutions, merely corrupt people.
In seeking to make conflicts as basic and uncomplicated as possible, the antagonist is often "pure evil" and not the bearer of his or her own legitimate world view. Protagonists and antagonists are not the only ones simplified in a Hollywood film, as other roles are also represented by quickly understood stock characters such as the love interest, the best friend, or the comic relief.
Such "instant characterization" often draws upon pre-existing social and cultural stereotypes. Some may seem benign, like villains wearing black.
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Particularly valuable are the 28 two-page case studies e. These analyze the films in terms of culture group. A model of sociological criticism and an invaluable tool in classroom or library for film students.
Соши замолчала. - Полезный груз? - предложил Бринкерхофф. - Количество жертв.
Молодой священник, причащавший Беккера, смотрел на него с неодобрением. Ему было понятно нетерпение иностранца, но все-таки зачем рваться без очереди. Беккер наклонил голову и тщательно разжевывал облатку. Он почувствовал, что сзади что-то произошло, возникло какое-то замешательство, и подумал о человеке, у которого купил пиджак.
Вход на спиральную лестницу Гиральды преграждала веревка с висящей на ней маленькой деревянной табличкой. Веревка даже не была как следует натянута.