Global Positioning System Theory And Applications Volume 1 Pdf


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This set is the only one of its kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS. These various viewpoints promote a thorough understanding of the system and make Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications the standard reference source for the Global Positioning System.

The books are the only of their kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS. These various viewpoints promote a thorough understanding of the system and make Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications the standard reference source for the GPS.

Global positioning system : theory and applications

The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

The GPS project was started by the U. Department of Defense in , with the first prototype spacecraft launched in and the full constellation of 24 satellites operational in Originally limited to use by the United States military, civilian use was allowed from the s following an executive order from President Ronald Reagan. Congress in The GPS service is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in during the Kargil War , or degrade the service at any time.

The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now fully deployed. GPS receivers released in that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimeters The GPS project was launched in the United States in to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, [15] integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the s.

The U. Department of Defense developed the system, which originally used 24 satellites. It was initially developed for use by the United States military and became fully operational in Civilian use was allowed from the s. Roger L. In , Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity — detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites.

Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth. This was corrected for in the design of GPS. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given the satellite's.

At the time, the Navy was developing the submarine-launched Polaris missile, which required them to know the submarine's location. In , the U. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS. In the s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations, [25] became the first worldwide radio navigation system.

Limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy. Although there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors, almost none of those was seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research, development, deployment, and operation of a constellation of navigation satellites.

During the Cold War arms race , the nuclear threat to the existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the United States Congress. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded. It is also the reason for the ultra-secrecy at that time. Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture, accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier.

Precise navigation would enable United States ballistic missile submarines to get an accurate fix of their positions before they launched their SLBMs. Navy and U. Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem.

A follow-on study, Project 57, was worked in and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born". The Naval Research Laboratory NRL continued making advances with their Timation Time Navigation satellites, first launched in , second launched in , with the third in carrying the first atomic clock into orbit and the fourth launched in A fourth ground-based station, at an undetermined position, could then use those signals to fix its location precisely.

With these parallel developments in the s, it was realized that a superior system could be developed by synthesizing the best technologies from B, Transit, Timation, and SECOR in a multi-service program.

Satellite orbital position errors, induced by variations in the gravity field and radar refraction among others, had to be resolved. A team led by Harold L Jury of Pan Am Aerospace Division in Florida from —, used real-time data assimilation and recursive estimation to do so, reducing systematic and residual errors to a manageable level to permit accurate navigation. It was at this meeting that the real synthesis that became GPS was created.

She was concerned with the curving of the paths of radio waves atmospheric refraction traversing the ionosphere from NavSTAR satellites. After Korean Air Lines Flight , a Boeing carrying people, was shot down in after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace , [38] in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands , President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use, once it was sufficiently developed, as a common good. Initially, the highest-quality signal was reserved for military use, and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded, in a policy known as Selective Availability.

This changed with President Bill Clinton signing on May 1, a policy directive to turn off Selective Availability to provide the same accuracy to civilians that was afforded to the military. The directive was proposed by the U.

Secretary of Defense, William Perry , in view of the widespread growth of differential GPS services by private industry to improve civilian accuracy.

Moreover, the U. Since its deployment, the U. Modernization of the satellite system has been an ongoing initiative by the U. Department of Defense through a series of satellite acquisitions to meet the growing needs of the military, civilians, and the commercial market.

GPS is owned and operated by the United States government as a national resource. After that, the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Executive Committee was established by presidential directive in to advise and coordinate federal departments and agencies on matters concerning the GPS and related systems.

Components of the executive office of the president participate as observers to the executive committee, and the FCC chairman participates as a liaison.

Department of Defense is required by law to "maintain a Standard Positioning Service as defined in the federal radio navigation plan and the standard positioning service signal specification that will be available on a continuous, worldwide basis," and "develop measures to prevent hostile use of GPS and its augmentations without unduly disrupting or degrading civilian uses.

Collier Trophy , the US's most prestigious aviation award. GPS developer Roger L. Easton received the National Medal of Technology on February 13, Francis X. Kane Col. USAF, ret. The IAF Honors and Awards Committee recognized the uniqueness of the GPS program and the exemplary role it has played in building international collaboration for the benefit of humanity.

On February 12, , four founding members of the project were awarded the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering with the chair of the awarding board stating "Engineering is the foundation of civilisation; there is no other foundation; it makes things happen. And that's exactly what today's Laureates have done - they've made things happen.

They've re-written, in a major way, the infrastructure of our world. Each satellite carries an accurate record of its position and time, and transmits that data to the receiver. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks that are synchronized with one another and with ground clocks. Any drift from time maintained on the ground is corrected daily.

In the same manner, the satellite locations are known with great precision. GPS receivers have clocks as well, but they are less stable and less precise. Since the speed of radio waves is constant and independent of the satellite speed, the time delay between when the satellite transmits a signal and the receiver receives it is proportional to the distance from the satellite to the receiver. At a minimum, four satellites must be in view of the receiver for it to compute four unknown quantities three position coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time.

Each GPS satellite continually broadcasts a signal carrier wave with modulation that includes:. Conceptually, the receiver measures the TOAs according to its own clock of four satellite signals. From the TOAs and the TOTs, the receiver forms four time of flight TOF values, which are given the speed of light approximately equivalent to receiver-satellite ranges plus time difference between the receiver and GPS satellites multiplied by speed of light, which are called as pseudo-ranges.

The receiver then computes its three-dimensional position and clock deviation from the four TOFs. In practice the receiver position in three dimensional Cartesian coordinates with origin at the Earth's center and the offset of the receiver clock relative to the GPS time are computed simultaneously, using the navigation equations to process the TOFs.

The receiver's Earth-centered solution location is usually converted to latitude , longitude and height relative to an ellipsoidal Earth model. The height may then be further converted to height relative to the geoid , which is essentially mean sea level.

These coordinates may be displayed, such as on a moving map display , or recorded or used by some other system, such as a vehicle guidance system. Although usually not formed explicitly in the receiver processing, the conceptual time differences of arrival TDOAs define the measurement geometry. The line connecting the two satellites involved and its extensions forms the axis of the hyperboloid.

The receiver is located at the point where three hyperboloids intersect. It is sometimes incorrectly said that the user location is at the intersection of three spheres. While simpler to visualize, this is the case only if the receiver has a clock synchronized with the satellite clocks i. There are marked performance benefits to the user carrying a clock synchronized with the satellites.

Foremost is that only three satellites are needed to compute a position solution. If it were an essential part of the GPS concept that all users needed to carry a synchronized clock, a smaller number of satellites could be deployed, but the cost and complexity of the user equipment would increase.

The description above is representative of a receiver start-up situation. Most receivers have a track algorithm , sometimes called a tracker , that combines sets of satellite measurements collected at different times—in effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver positions are usually close to each other.

After a set of measurements are processed, the tracker predicts the receiver location corresponding to the next set of satellite measurements. When the new measurements are collected, the receiver uses a weighting scheme to combine the new measurements with the tracker prediction.

In general, a tracker can a improve receiver position and time accuracy, b reject bad measurements, and c estimate receiver speed and direction. The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can be computed only with a delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance traveled between two position measurements drops below or near the random error of position measurement.

GPS units can use measurements of the Doppler shift of the signals received to compute velocity accurately. GPS requires four or more satellites to be visible for accurate navigation.

The solution of the navigation equations gives the position of the receiver along with the difference between the time kept by the receiver's on-board clock and the true time-of-day, thereby eliminating the need for a more precise and possibly impractical receiver based clock. Applications for GPS such as time transfer , traffic signal timing, and synchronization of cell phone base stations , make use of this cheap and highly accurate timing.

Some GPS applications use this time for display, or, other than for the basic position calculations, do not use it at all. Although four satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases.

Global Positioning System

The books are the only of their kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS. These various viewpoints promote a thorough understanding of the system and make Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications the standard reference source for the GPS. The two volumes are intended to be complementary. Volume I concentrates on fundamentals and Volume II on applications. They are recommended for university engineering students, practicing GPS engineers, applications engineers, and managers who wish to improve their understanding of the system.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Parkinson and J. Parkinson , J. Spilker Published Computer Science, Geography. Save to Library. Create Alert.

Global positioning system : theory and application. Vol. 1

Abstract :- GPS Global Positioning System is the only system today able to show ones own position on the earth any time in any weather, anywhere. This paper addresses this satellite based navigation system at length. The different segments of GPS viz.

This is the first volume in a two-volume set. The books explain the technology, performance and applications of the Global Positioning System GPS and each chapter is written by an expert in the field. This volume concentrates on fundamentals. Read more Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours.

ISBN 13: 9781563471063

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Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Volume II (Progress in Astronautics & Aeronau

General systems theory has been proposed as a basis for the unification of science. The open systems model has stimulated many new conceptualizations in organization theory and management practice. However, experience in utilizing these concepts suggests many unresolved dilemmas. Contingency views represent a step toward less abstraction, more explicit patterns of relationships, and more applicable theory. Sophistication will come when we have a more complete understanding of organizations as total systems configurations of subsystems so that we can prescribe more appropriate organizational designs and managerial systems. Ultimately, organization theory should serve as the foundation for more effective management practice.

The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

This set is the only one of its kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS. These various viewpoints promote a thorough understanding of the system and make Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications the standard reference source for the Global Positioning System. The two volumes are intended to be complementary. Volume I concentrates on fundamentals and Volume II on applications. It is recommended for university engineering students, practicing GPS engineers, applications engineers, and managers who wish to improve their understanding of the system.

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Parkinson and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks. These various viewpoints promote a thorough understanding of the system and make Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications the standard reference source for the GPS. The two volumes are intended to be complementary. Volume I concentrates on fundamentals and Volume II on applications. They are recommended for university engineering students, practicing GPS engineers, applications engineers, and managers who wish to improve their understanding of the system. Free delivery on qualified orders.

This study investigates the RTK achievable accuracy and repeatability under different satellite constellations and site conditions in Samatya coastal area , Istanbul, Turkey. Surveyed area, control and test points as well as the impact area of trees where the precision decreases are visualised using Autodesk LandXplorer Studio ProfessionalTM Software. Al-Shaery, A. Bilker, M. Reports of the Finnish Geodetic Institute, No.

Резко просигналив, пронесся мимо мини-автобус, до отказа забитый подростками. Мотоцикл Беккера показался рядом с ним детской игрушкой, выехавшей на автостраду. Метрах в пятистах сзади в снопе искр на шоссе выкатило такси. Набирая скорость, оно столкнуло в сторону Пежо-504, отбросив его на газон разделительной полосы. Беккер миновал указатель Центр Севильи - 2 км. Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись. Спидометр показывал 60 миль в час.

Мелькнул лучик надежды. Но уже через минуту парень скривился в гримасе.

Он не услышал ее крика, когда ударил ее, он даже не знал, кричала ли она вообще: он оглох, когда ему было всего двенадцать лет от роду. Человек благоговейно потянулся к закрепленной на брючном ремне батарее: эта машинка, подарок одного из клиентов, подарила ему новую жизнь. Теперь он мог принимать заказы в любой точке мира. Сообщения поступали мгновенно, и их нельзя было отследить.

Global Positioning System

Хейл продолжал взывать к ней: - Я отключил Следопыта, подумав, что ты за мной шпионишь.

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Brice C.
24.04.2021 at 23:44 - Reply

Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Volume I. James J. Spilker Jr., ISBN (print): Publication Date: January 1,

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