# Highway Level Of Service And Capacity Lecture Notes Pdf

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To overcome this problem, a novel approach for evaluating urban traffic congestion is proposed.

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In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Definition of Highway Capacity 2. Importance of the Concept of Highway Capacity 3. Factors Affecting Capacity and Level of Service 4. Traffic Capacity Formula. Highway capacity is associated with traffic volume and traffic density. Traffic volume is the number of vehicles passing a given point on a roadway during a specified time period. This is usually expressed as vehicles per hour.

Traffic density is defined as the number of vehicles occupying a unit length of a lane of a roadway at a given instant of time.

This is usually expressed in vehicles per kilometre. It is easy to understand that traffic volume is the product of traffic density and speed. Capacity is the maximum traffic flow that can be accommodated in a highway facility during a given time period under prevailing roadway, traffic and control conditions.

While traffic volume represents the actual rate of flow and responds to variations in traffic demand, capacity indicates the maximum rate of flow when exposed to a certain level of service characteristics or a number of prevailing roadway and traffic conditions. The Highway Capacity Manual defined the following three types of highway capacity O. K Normann :. Basic capacity is the maximum number of vehicles that can pass a given point on a lane or a roadway during one hour, under the ideal roadway and traffic conditions that can possibly be attained.

Possible capacity is the maximum number of vehicles that can pass a given point on a lane or roadway during one hour, under the prevailing roadway and traffic conditions.

The value of S is obtained from actual field observations; alternatively, it can be calculated from safe stopping sight distance considerations involving total reaction time and braking distance, and the length of the vehicles, L, in metres —.

S , headed by O. Normann, conducted research in this direction and published the Highway Capacity Manual in ; this was later revised in , and with further improvements combining experimental and mathematical models of traffic flow. The concept of highway capacity is important for the following reasons:. The capacity of a highway should be adequate to serve the needs of the projected traffic.

The class of highway, lane width, number of lanes and intersections are dependent on capacity. Improvements on geometric elements, traffic control devices and traffic management measures can be effectively planned based on the studies of highway capacity. The adequacy of the existing highway network for the existing traffic volume can be assessed by capacity studies; transportation planning can be done effectively using this information. Highway facilities in India are used by different classes of vehicles such as cars, buses, trucks, vans, auto-rickshaws, motor-cycles, bicycles, bullock-carts and so on.

The characteristics of this heterogeneous or mixed traffic flow are complex compared to homogenous traffic consisting of passenger cars only. In order to facilitate the estimation of traffic volume and traffic capacity while dealing with mixed traffic conditions, it is imperative that a common standard vehicle is chosen and all other types are converted into this class of vehicle; the standard vehicle chosen for this purpose is the passenger car.

The common unit, therefore, is the passenger car unit PCU. If the addition of one particular vehicle per hour of a certain class affects the traffic flow to the same extent as the addition of x passenger cars, that particular vehicle is considered equivalent to x PCU.

The important factors that affect the PCU-value of any type of vehicle are:. Clearances — transverse and longitudinal for ensuring safe traffic operation. The IRC guidelines for capacity recommended the following PCU equivalent for different types of vehicles in India for rural conditions:. Traffic flow, free from interference of vehicles and pedestrians from the side. Traffic lanes of adequate width and shoulders with no lateral obstructions within 1.

These ideal conditions are rarely met with on actual roads; hence, the theoretical capacities are never realised. When a road is carrying a traffic volume equal to its capacity under ideal roadway and traffic conditions, the service offered by the road to the road user becomes poor and the driving speed drops leading to an increase in travel time as there is no overtaking opportunity.

Thus, the service offered by a roadway to the road user can vary depending on the traffic volume. Level of Service denotes the level of facility that can be derived from a road under different traffic volumes and operating conditions. The concept of level of service is defined as a qualitative measure of the operating conditions in a traffic stream and the perception of these conditions by drivers and passengers. The following factors are considered in evaluating the level of service:.

Although it is desirable to consider all these factors, it is difficult to incorporate all in the absence of data. In view of this, the highway capacity manual utilises only two factors — the travel speed and the ratio of the service volume to capacity, depending upon the nature of the problem.

While operating speed is used in rural areas to evaluate the level of service, in urban areas, the average overall travel speed is taken into account. The operating conditions for the six levels of service selected by HCM are given below Level A represents the highest and level F the lowest :. There is no restriction on maneuverability due to the presence of other vehicles. Level B — Zone of stable flow, operating speeds beginning to be restricted by traffic conditions.

There is reasonable freedom to select speed and lane. The lower limit of this level lowest speed and highest volume is associated with service volume used in the design of rural highways.

Level C — Still in the zone of stable flow, but speeds and maneuverability more closely controlled by higher volumes.

Drivers are restricted regarding speeds lane changes and overtaking manoeuvres. A relatively satisfactory operating speed is still obtained, with service volumes suitable for urban design practice. Level D — Approaches unstable flow, the operating speed is tolerable, but considerably affected by changes in operating conditions. Fluctuations in volume and restrictions to flow may cause substantial drops in operating speed. Drivers have little freedom to manoeuvre.

Comfort and convenience are low but can be tolerated for short periods. Level E — This level cannot be described by speed alone.

It is also determined by volumes at or near highway capacity. Flow is unstable and there may be stoppages of short durations. Level F — At this level, there are forced operations at low speeds resulting in volumes below capacity. Queues of vehicles piling up from a restriction downstream serve as a storage area during peak hour. Substantial reduction in speeds and stoppages may occur for short or long duration because of downstream congestion.

In the extreme, both speed and volume can drops to zero. After selecting a level of service for design purposes, the corresponding service volume logically becomes the design volume or design capacity. If this volume is exceeded, the operating conditions will fall below the level of service selected. The highway capacity manual makes no recommendations regarding the level of service to be selected for the design of different types of highways. The choice is left to the designer to select an appropriate level of service based on economy and need.

The zones where the different levels of service occur are shown in this figure, which pertains to a multi-lane highway. Thus, there will be an optimum operating speed at which the volume will be maximum Fig. The factors affecting capacity and level of service fall under two heads:. Restrictive physical and geometric elements such as lane-width, lateral clearance, and horizontal alignment of road shoulders, gradients and pavement surface condition are some factors which affect capacity and level of service.

Even road intersections affect the capacity. Lane width — A width of 3. Smaller widths than this will reduce the capacity up to 25 per cent. Distance from the edge of the carriageway to an obstruction is also an important factor which can affect capacity. Lateral clearance — Lateral obstructions may be abutments such as sign posts, light poles and parked cars; if these are located closer than 1.

Shoulders — They help to maintain traffic flow. Paved shoulders of 1. Horizontal alignment — Sharp curves and restrictive sight distances are also factors which tend to reduce lane capacity.

The highway capacity manual contains tables to account for the influence of these factors on capacity. Gradient — Gradients affect the speed of the vehicles, especially trucks, and have an adversely impact on the capacity.

Pavement surface condition — A deteriorated pavement surface condition is known to adversely affect the capacity but the Manual states that adequate data are not available to develop adjustment factors to consider this.

The capacity and level of service are affected by the composition of different types of vehicles in the stream, variation of traffic flow, traffic interruption, and lane distribution.

The number of traffic lanes, vehicular and driver characteristics, and one- or two-way traffic movements have a direct bearing on the lane or highway capacity. The latest IRC recommendations for design service volumes are given below:. Capacity values for urban roads between intersections suggested by the IRC are given below:.

These are for no frontage access, no standing vehicles, and very little cross traffic; for other restrictive conditions, the capacity values will be reduced significantly.

## Recent Advances in Traffic Engineering

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Traffic congestion is a condition in transport that is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. Traffic congestion on urban road networks has increased substantially, since the s. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation , this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads. As demand approaches the capacity of a road or of the intersections along the road , extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is known as a traffic jam [2] [3] or informally a traffic snarl-up. Mathematically, traffic is modeled as a flow through a fixed point on the route, analogously to fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for space greater than the available street capacity; this point is commonly termed saturation.

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They are mobile transport assets and fall into three basic types; land road, rail, pipelines , water shipping , and air. Transport modes are designed to either carry passengers or freight , but most modes can carry a combination of both. For instance, an automobile has the capacity to carry some freight while a passenger plane has a bellyhold that is used for luggage and cargo. Technical characteristics relate to attributes such as speed, capacity, and motive technology, while operational characteristics involve the context in which modes operated, including speed limits, safety conditions, or operating hours. The demand for transport and the ownership of modes are dominant commercial characteristics, as transportation modes are used to support economic activities and generate an income.

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Transportation Research pp Cite as. This paper presents the evaluation of percent-time-spent-following PTSF , one of the key service measures as indicated by Highway Capacity Manual HCM to assess level of service LOS under heterogeneous traffic conditions for two-lane highway. Detecting from the existing studies, it is declared that measuring PTSF directly in the field is quite tedious.

### 5.1 – Transportation Modes, Modal Competition and Modal Shift

- Я пошлю эту информацию в посольство в понедельник прямо с утра. - Мне очень важно получить ее именно. - Это невозможно, - раздраженно ответила женщина.

Ровно год назад он разбил здесь себе голову. Сегодня годовщина. Беккер кивнул, плохо соображая, какая тут связь. - Такая прическа была у Табу в день гибели.

Keynote Lecture. “Highway I. An overview on capacity and quality of service studies in. Japan 厂The capacity flow rate is reduced to 2, to 2, veh/h/2-​lane 厂䇾Traffic Capacity of Roads䇿(Japan Road Association ): a manual​.

- Я позвоню Стратмору и попрошу прислать нам письменное подтверждение. - Нет, - сказала Мидж, - игнорируя сарказм, прозвучавший в его словах.  - Стратмор уже солгал нам .

Он попробовал встать, но настолько выбился из сил, что не смог ступить ни шагу и долго сидел, изможденный вконец, на каменных ступеньках, рассеянно разглядывая распростертое у его ног тело. Глаза Халохота закатились, глядя в пустоту. Странно, но его очки ничуть не пострадали.

Раздался страшный треск, и стеклянная панель обдала ее дождем осколков. Звуки шифровалки впервые за всю историю этого здания ворвались в помещение Третьего узла. Сьюзан открыла. Сквозь отверстие в двери она увидела стол. Он все еще катился по инерции и вскоре исчез в темноте.

Вот почему мы внесены в телефонный справочник. Мы занимаемся легальным бизнесом. А вы ищете проститутку.  - Слово прозвучало как удар хлыста. - Но мой брат… - Сэр, если ваш брат целый день целовался в парке с девчонкой, то это значит, что она работает не в нашем агентстве.

Ясно, что ему не удастся влиться в это море, которое раздавит его, как утлую лодчонку.

Ее плечи подрагивали. Она закрыла лицо руками. Дэвид не мог прийти в. - Но, Сьюзан… я думал… - Он взял ее за дрожащие плечи и повернул к. И тогда он увидел, что Сьюзан вовсе не плакала.

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Level of Services are therefore closely related analysis of a traffic facility. The Highway Capacity Manual() defines the capacity as the Note that the above values are not analytical or experimentally derived, but, statistically de- In this lecture the concepts of capacity and LOS is presented.

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