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- Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
- Technical and Professional Practice Reference for Architects
- LEED v4 Impact Category and Point Allocation Process Overview
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Green Building Council USGBC it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings , homes, and neighborhoods which aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. JD Polk co-founder of Solar Cells Inc First Solar also contributed to the guidelines set forth in the initial formation, as did long time solar advocate Lawton Chiles the Governor of Florida at the time.
As founding chairman of the LEED Steering Committee, Watson led a broad-based consensus process until , bringing together non-profit organizations, government agencies, architects, engineers, developers, builders, product manufacturers and other industry leaders.
From to , LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of interrelated standards covering aspects from the design and construction to the maintenance and operation of buildings. LEED also has grown from six volunteers on one committee to , staff, volunteers and professionals.
Many U. Unlike model building codes, such as the International Building Code , only members of the USGBC and specific "in-house" committees may add to, subtract from, or edit the standard, subject to an internal review process.
LEED has evolved since to more accurately represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies. LEED v4 was introduced in November, LEED encompasses ten rating systems for the design, construction and operation of buildings, homes and neighborhoods.
Five overarching categories correspond to the specialties available under the LEED professional program. That suite currently consists of: . Up to 10 additional points may be earned: four additional points may be received for Regional Priority Credits, and six additional points for Innovation in Design which includes exemplary performance credits for existing credit categories. The LEED performance credit system aims to allocate points "based on the potential environmental impacts and human benefits of each credit.
To participate in LEED , a building must comply with environmental laws and regulations, occupancy scenarios, building permanence and pre-rating completion, site boundaries and area-to-site ratios. Its owner must share data on the building's energy and water use for five years after occupancy for new construction or date of certification for existing buildings. Each of the performance categories also have mandatory measures in each category, which receive no points. The weighting process has three steps: .
This system results in a weighted average for each rating scheme based upon actual impacts and the relative importance of those impacts to human health and environmental quality. The LEED council also appears to have assigned credit and measure weighting based upon the market implications of point allocation.
Additional performance categories in the LEED for Homes rating system are Locations and Linkages recognizing the importance of transportation access, open space, and physical activity outdoors and Awareness and Education recognizing the need for buildings and settlements to educate occupants. The intent of this credit is to "promote occupants' productivity, comfort, and well-being by providing thermal comfort.
For example, research has shown providing occupants control over the thermostat or operable window allows for comfort across a wider range of temperatures. The certification process for design teams is made up of two consecutive applications: one including design credits, and one including construction credits. All of the LEED credits in each rating system are assigned to either the design application or the construction application.
The design credits include those that are the purview of the architect and the engineer, and are documented in the official construction drawings. The construction credits include those that are predominantly under the purview of the contractor, and are documented during the construction and commissioning of the building.
A fee is required to register the building, and to submit the design and construction applications. Total fees are assessed based on building area. The application review and certification process is handled on LEED Online, USGBC's web-based service that employs a series of active PDF forms to allow project teams to fill out credit forms and upload supporting documentation online.
Design teams have the option of achieving points under the Optimize Energy Performance credit by building an energy model. The baseline building must be modeled in the same location, and have the same geometry and occupancy as the design building. Depending on location climate and building size, the standard provides requirements for HVAC system type, and wall and window definitions. The goal of this methodology is to provide a baseline building to use as a reference point to compare the design building against.
It is a way to standardize the baseline, while putting weight on important factors that heavily influence building energy consumption e. The number of points achieved in this credit is correlated with the percent predicted energy cost savings demonstrated by the difference between the design and baseline energy models. This method of energy modeling has been criticized for inaccurately predicting actual energy usage of LEED-certified buildings.
The USGBC admits that "current information indicates that most buildings do not perform as well as design metrics indicate. As a result, building owners might not obtain the benefits promised. Today, increasing demand towards environmental safety forces LEED certification to play major role. A Provider Organization helps the project through the process while overseeing the Green Raters.
The Provider and the Green Rater do not certify the project, but rather assist in the certification process. Research papers provide most of what is known about the performance and effectiveness of LEED in two credit category areas — energy and indoor environment quality. This has led to criticism of LEED's ability to accurately determine the efficiency of buildings.
In Newsham et al. In Scofield published an article in response to Newsham et al. Scofield considered source energy  accounting for energy losses during generation and transmission as well as site energy , and used area-weighted energy use intensities, or EUIs energy per unit area per year , when comparing LEED and non-LEED buildings to account for the fact that larger buildings tend to have larger EUIs.
In , Fuertes and Schiavon  developed the first study that analyzes plug loads using LEED documented data from certified projects. In general, energy modelers considered the energy consumption of plug loads of equipment that are constantly running such as refrigerators as well as monitors and computers predictable. Overall the results suggested a disconnection between energy modelers assumptions and the actual performance of buildings.
Energy model might be a source of error during LEED design phase. Stoppel and Leite  evaluated the predicted and actual energy consumption of two twin buildings using the energy model during the LEED design phase and the utility meter data after one year of occupancy. The study's results suggest that mechanical systems turnover and occupancy assumptions significantly differing from predicted to actual values.
According to Newsham et al. Newsham et al. The Center for Disease Control defines Indoor Environmental Quality IEQ as "the quality of a building's environment in relation to the health and wellbeing of those who occupy space within it. In consideration of a building's indoor environmental quality, published studies have also included factors such as: acoustics, building cleanliness and maintenance, colors and textures, workstation size, ceiling height, window access and shading, surface finishes, furniture adaptability and comfort.
In , a paper published by S. Schiavon and S. These factors include the ease of interaction, building cleanliness, the comfort of furnishing, the amount of light, building maintenance, colors and textures, workplace cleanliness, the amount of space, furniture adjustability, visual comfort, air quality, visual privacy, noise, temperature, and sound privacy.
The results showed occupants tend to be slightly more satisfied in LEED buildings for the air quality and slightly more dissatisfied with the amount of light. The overall finding was that there was no significant influence of LEED certification on occupant satisfaction in consideration of the overall building and workspace ratings. Based on similar dataset 21, occupants , in , Schiavon and Altomonte,  found that occupants have equivalent satisfaction levels in LEED and non-LEED buildings when evaluated independently from the following nine factors: 1 office type, 2 spatial layout, 3 distance from windows, 4 building size, 5 gender, 6 age, 7 type of work, 8 time at workspace, and 9 weekly working hours.
LEED certified buildings may provide higher satisfaction in open spaces than in enclosed offices, in smaller buildings than in larger buildings, and to occupants having spent less than one year in their workspaces rather than to those who have used their workspace longer. The study also points out that the positive value of LEED certification from the aspect of occupant satisfaction may tend to decrease with time.
In , a study on indoor environmental quality and the potential health benefits of green certified buildings was developed by Allen et al. One of the limitations of the study was the use of subjective health performance indicators since there is a lack of definition on such indicators by current studies.
On-site, workstations were measured for thermal conditions, air quality, acoustics, lighting, workstation size, ceiling height, window access and shading, and surface finishes. Responses were positive in the areas of environmental satisfaction, satisfaction with thermal conditions, satisfaction with view from the outside, aesthetic appearance, reduced disturbance from heating, ventilation and air-conditioning noise, workplace image, night-time sleep quality, mood, physical symptoms, and reduced number of airborne particulates.
The results showed green buildings exhibited superior performance compared with similar conventional buildings. Current latest study published in , by Altomonte, Schiavon, Kent and Brager, specifically investigated whether a green rating leads to higher occupant satisfaction with IEQ. In addition, the rating level and version of the certification has no impact on workplace satisfaction. There are some possible explanations. Many intervening factors in the time between design and occupancy can alter the existence or performance of the strategies that LEED awarded.
Survey participants may also misinterpret the satisfaction with an IEQ parameter, or bias with personal attitudes. SDA is a metric that measures the annual sufficiency of daylight levels in interior spaces and ASE describes the potential for visual discomfort by direct sunlight and glare.
According to Reinhart  the direct sunlight requirement is a very stringent approach that can disable good daylight design from achieving this credit. Reinhart propose the application of the direct sunlight criterion only in spaces that require stringent control of sunlight e. Innovation generally needs to come with the idea of new designs and high-quality construction technology for LEED architecture. When we mention about the cultural heritage buildings, innovation made a big change in them by using the nanoparticle technology for consolidation and also conservation effects.
For cultural heritage buildings, the consolidation and conservation innovations began with the idea of using calcium hydroxide nano-particles for the porous media structures.
By this way, the strength and mechanical strength improvement could able to get managed. Also, some other innovation studies could be possible by using titanium, silica, and aluminum-based compounds. For the facade of the high rise buildings , such as the Empire State Building in the United States , the surface area give the opportunity to make it possible to design innovation.
Also to create the " luminescent discovery" for solar concentrators as the innovation by using nanoparticle technology has been released. The general architecture in Kartal seaside part was storey housing systems and actually the most important role was the contribution to the Turkish industry with the factories that have been established in the last years time.
After the architectural competition of Kartal Urban Transformation Project, the public view of the Kartal region has been changed.
Architect Zaha Hadid has won the competition with an extreme design of totally high rise buildings. However, it also attributed substantial benefits to the increased productivity from the better ventilation, temperature control, lighting control, and reduced indoor air pollution.
From a purely financial perspective, in several studies found that LEED for-rent office spaces generally charged higher rent and had higher occupancy rates. CoStar Group collects data on properties. LEED focuses on the design of the building and not on its actual energy consumption, and therefore it has suggested that LEED buildings should be tracked to discover whether the potential energy savings from the design are being used in practice.
The U. Green Building Council provides an online directory of U. LEED-certified projects. It provides searchable access to a database of activities, buildings, places and collections of green building-related information from many sources and programs, as well as, specifically provides information about LEED projects.
They show differentiation in a growing and competitive industry, and they allow for varied levels of specialization. A LEED Professional Credential provides employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders with assurances of an individual's level of competence and is the mark of the most qualified, educated, and influential green building professionals in the marketplace. LEED certified buildings are intended to use resources more efficiently when compared to conventional buildings simply built to code.
Technical and Professional Practice Reference for Architects
Download leed v4 reference guide pdf. Reference Guide. In exchange for this authorization, the user agrees: 1. It will be one of assistance of your life. Leed Reference Guide V4 - agrotm This paper. A short summary of this paper.
Views 29 Downloads 1 File size KB. Green Building Council Please upgrade yo. Information in this Handbook supersedes information contained in any previously published information. This booklet may not be brought into the examination. Eligibility standards, exam content, exam standards, fees, and guidelines are subject to change. Please read and understand the entire Handbook including all policies, procedures, and consequences.
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LEED v4 Impact Category and Point Allocation Process Overview
Candidates testing on or after September 1 do not need to use these references in preparing for the LEED Green Associate exam, however, we are keeping the links here because they are a source of great information. Search this site. Partnerships SKYed Partnerships.
Archtoolbox makes it easy to find all of the information you need to design beautiful buildings and grow your career. This article includes affiliate links and Archtoolbox earns from qualifying purchases. More info. But first, we should give you an overview of LEED.
PURPOSE It is the intention of this policy to establish the use of sustainable building practices in the design of county capital improvement projects in order. Vision In framing the vision for sustainability in the Built Environment, participants envisioned a campus with buildings that would be designed to last years, and to provide a healthy, productive. Credit earned on. Submitting GBCI continuing education hours: RedVector pilot program courses This document provides a brief review of where to find the information you need on RedVector s web site in order to receive continuing.
Каждое послание состояло из числа букв, равного полному квадрату, - шестнадцати, двадцати пяти, ста - в зависимости оттого, какой объем информации нужно было передать. Цезарь тайно объяснил офицерам, что по получении этого якобы случайного набора букв они должны записать текст таким образом, чтобы он составил квадрат. Тогда, при чтении сверху вниз, перед глазами магически возникало тайное послание. С течением времени этот метод преобразования текста был взят на вооружение многими другими и модифицирован, с тем чтобы его труднее было прочитать. Кульминация развития докомпьютерного шифрования пришлась на время Второй мировой войны.
Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником. Можно ли ему доверять. А не заберет ли он ключ. Фонтейну нужно было какое-то прикрытие - на всякий случай, - и он принял необходимые меры.
Северная Дакота - это Хейл.
Чтобы ключ никто не нашел, Танкадо проделал то же самое с Цифровой крепостью. Он спрятал свой ключ, зашифровав его формулой, содержащейся в этом ключе. - А что за файл в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ? - спросила Сьюзан. - Я, как и все прочие, скачал его с сайта Танкадо в Интернете.
Защитники поспешили на свою половину поля. - А ты? - спросил Беккер. - Что предпочитаешь .
За свою долгую историю оно стало свидетелем переворотов, пожаров и публичных казней, однако большинство туристов приходили сюда по совершенно иной причине: туристические проспекты рекламировали его как английский военный штаб в фильме Лоуренс Аравийский.
Стратмор сохранял спокойствие. - И что же это за секрет. - Вы отлично знаете это. Это Цифровая крепость.
- Коммандер, - сказала она, - если вы инструктировали Дэвида сегодня утром по телефону из машины, кто-то мог перехватить… - Один шанс на миллион, - возразил Стратмор, стараясь ее успокоить. - Подслушивающий должен был находиться в непосредственной близости и точно знать, что надо подслушивать. - Он положил руку ей на плечо. - Я никогда не послал бы туда Дэвида, если бы считал, что это связано хоть с малейшей опасностью.
Green Building Council USGBC it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings , homes, and neighborhoods which aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently.