Bacterial Nutrition And Growth Pdf


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Bacteria have existed from very early in the history of life on Earth. Bacteria fossils discovered in rocks date from at least the Devonian Period Bacteria were widespread on Earth at least since the latter part of the Paleoproterozoic, roughly 1.

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Nutrition of Bacteria

A characteristic of microorganisms is their ability to grow and form a population of organisms. One of the results of microbial metabolism is an increase in the size of the cell.

The many requirements for successful growth include those both chemical and physical. Chemical requirements. In order to grow successfully, microorganisms must have a supply of water as well as numerous other substances including mineral elements, growth factors, and gas, such as oxygen.

Perhaps 50 percent of a bacterium's dry weight is carbon. Carbon can be obtained from organic materials in the environment, or it may be derived from carbon dioxide.

Both chemoautotrophic and photoautotrophic microorganisms obtain their energy and produce their nutrients from simple inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide. Among the other elements required by microorganisms are nitrogen and phosphorous.

Bacteria that obtain nitrogen directly from the atmosphere are called nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Phosphorus is an essential element for nucleic acid synthesis and for the construction of phospholipids. Organisms such as these produce odoriferous gases in their metabolism, including hydrogen sulfide gas and methane. These species grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.

In some cases, these organisms must have an environment rich in carbon dioxide. These elements often are used for the synthesis of enzymes. Organic growth factors such as vitamins may also be required by certain bacteria. Amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines should also be available. Physical requirements. Certain physical conditions affect the type and amount of microbial growth.

A minimum and a maximum growth temperature range exist for each species. For most bacteria, the optimum pH is between 6. Since the pH of most human tissue is 7. Certain bacteria, such as those in sauerkraut and yogurt, prefer acidic environments of 6. Molds and yeasts are among other common acidophilic microorganisms. Normally, the salt concentration of microbial cytoplasm is about 1 percent. When the external environment also has a 1 percent salt concentration, then the osmotic pressure is optimum.

Should the external salt concentration rise, as when food is salted, water will flow out of the microbial cytoplasm by osmosis through the cell membrane into the environment, thereby causing the microorganisms to shrink and die.

By comparison, if exterior water is free of salt, it will flow through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm of the cell, causing the organism to swell and burst. Microorganisms that live in marine environments can tolerate high salt concentrations. They include diatoms and dinoflagellates, two types of unicellular algae that lie at the base of oceanic food chains.

There are many other species of halophilic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and algae. Previous Microbial Metabolism. Next Microbial Cultivation. Removing book from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title. Are you sure you want to remove bookConfirmation and any corresponding bookmarks?

My Preferences My Reading List. Growth Requirements for Microorganisms. Adam Bede has been added to your Reading List! Figure 1.

Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Last Updated on January 9, by Sagar Aryal. The microbial cell is made up of several elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. These are also known as macro elements or macronutrients because these elements are required in high amounts by the microbes. Among these, C, H, O, N, S, and P are the major elements required for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Apart from these, the other macronutrients are found to have several biological functions.

A characteristic of microorganisms is their ability to grow and form a population of organisms. One of the results of microbial metabolism is an increase in the size of the cell. The many requirements for successful growth include those both chemical and physical. Chemical requirements. In order to grow successfully, microorganisms must have a supply of water as well as numerous other substances including mineral elements, growth factors, and gas, such as oxygen. Perhaps 50 percent of a bacterium's dry weight is carbon. Carbon can be obtained from organic materials in the environment, or it may be derived from carbon dioxide.


Growth Requirements (pp. )​​ Microbial growth depends on the metab olism of nutrients, and results in the formation of a discrete colony, an aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell. A nutrient is any chemical required for growth of microbial populations.


Evolution of bacteria

All microbes have a need for three things: carbon, energy, and electrons. There are specific terms associated with the source of each of these items, to help define organisms. Let us focus on carbon first.

Microbial cytoplasm is contained within the cytoplasmic membrane and includes the cytosol, macromolecules, and inclusions. The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane plays a role in permeability and energy conservation in microbial cell structure. The cytoplasmic membranes in bacteria are composed of a phospholipid bilayer; this layer differs from those found in eukaryotes in their lack of sterols.

Water activity controls microbial growth

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Северная Дакота. - Северная Дакота. Разумеется, это кличка.

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Сьюзан сладко потянулась и взялась за. Она загрузила программу Следопыт и, приготовившись отправиться на охоту, взглянула на адрес электронной почты, который вручил ей Стратмор. NDAKOTAARA.

11: Microbial Nutrition

Беккер подумал, что деньги, которые он ей даст, в конечном счете окажутся в кармане какого-нибудь наркоторговца из Трианы.

3 Comments

Veronica F.
22.04.2021 at 04:55 - Reply

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Leonarda D.
25.04.2021 at 16:28 - Reply

of a Bacterial Species. Investigating the Microbial. World 5: The Great Plate Count. Anomaly. CHAPTER PREVIEW. 5. Microbial Growth and Nutrition.

Comforte L.
29.04.2021 at 00:38 - Reply

Bacterial requirements for growth include sources of energy, "organic" carbon. (​e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and metal ions (e.g. iron). Optimal temperature, pH.

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