Islamic Perspective On Cooperation And States Pdf


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Initially, as a Pan-Islamic , religious, and social movement , it preached Islam in Egypt, taught the illiterate, and set up hospitals and business enterprises. It later advanced into the political arena, aiming to end British colonial control of Egypt.

Muslim Brotherhood

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID is affecting every part of human lives, including the physical world. The measures taken to control the spread of the virus and the slowdown of economic activities have significant effects on the environment.

Therefore, this study intends to explore the positive and negative environmental impacts of the COVID pandemic, by reviewing the available scientific literatures. This study indicates that, the pandemic situation significantly improves air quality in different cities across the world, reduces GHGs emission, lessens water pollution and noise, and reduces the pressure on the tourist destinations, which may assist with the restoration of the ecological system.

In addition, there are also some negative consequences of COVID, such as increase of medical waste, haphazard use and disposal of disinfectants, mask, and gloves; and burden of untreated wastes continuously endangering the environment.

It seems that, economic activities will return soon after the pandemic, and the situation might change. Hence, this study also outlines possible ways to achieve long-term environmental benefits. It is expected that the proper implementation of the proposed strategies might be helpful for the global environmental sustainability.

As of September 06, ; the virus has claimed to spread countries, areas or territories with the death of , humans from 26,, confirmed cases WHO, a , and the number is increasing rapidly. Older people along with other underlying medical conditions are at a high risk of mortality Chen, Till date, there has not been any significant breakthrough in the development of an effective medicine or a vaccine for this disease.

To control the spread of the virus and reduce the death rate, government of most of the affected countries initiated to restrict the movement of people. It is found that India restricted the movement of the largest number of people approximately 1. Except emergency services e. All the public transport services e. In London, the typically bustling pubs, bars and theatres have been closed, and people have been advised to stay at home.

As of April 7, , World Economic Forum reported, nearly 3 billion people are faced with some form of lockdown globally, and movement is being restricted by respective governments to control the COVID infection WEF, Moreover, the increased use of personal protective equipment PPE e. In these circumstances, this study intended to explore the positive and negative environmental consequences of the COVID pandemic, and propose possible strategies as future guideline for environmental sustainability.

This study was performed by reviewing the available published literatures, case studies, and different government and non-government organizations information from reports and official websites.

From a large number of studies, this study compiles and presents the data and information which are relevant to the environmental effects of COVID and meet the study goals. The global disruption caused by the COVID has brought about several effects on the environment and climate. Due to movement restriction and a significant slowdown of social and economic activities, air quality has improved in many cities with a reduction in water pollution in different parts of the world.

Besides, increased use of PPE e. As industries, transportation and companies have closed down, it has brought a sudden drop of greenhouse gases GHGs emissions. In the US NO 2 declined The level of NO 2 demonstrated a reduction across Ontario Canada and found to be reduced from 4.

Up to It was also stated that, the levels of NO 2 and PM 2. The measures taken globally for the containment of the virus are also having a dramatic impact on the aviation sector. Many countries restricted international travelers from entry and departure. Due to the decreased passengers and restrictions, worldwide flights are being cancelled by commercial aircraft companies.

Overall, much less consumption of fossil fuels lessens the GHGs emission, which helps to combat against global climate change. According to the International Energy Agency IEA , oil demand has dropped , barrels globally in the first three months of , compared to the same period of last year IEA, Coal based electricity generation scenario before and after lockdown in the periphery of Delhi, India, along with total electricity consumption reduction in some selected countries Data sources: Armstrong, ; CREA, For instance, the river Ganga and Yamuna have reached a significant level of purity due to the absence of industrial pollution on the days of lockdown in India.

It is found that, among the 36 real-time monitoring stations of river Ganga, water from 27 stations met the permissible limit Singhal and Matto, Except total coliform in some monitoring stations, all others parameters even meet the national drinking water quality standard, which can be used without conventional treatment but after disinfection Class A BIS, Water pollution are also reduced in the beach areas of Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Maldives, and Indonesia Kundu, ; Rahman, However, the amount of industrial water consumption is also reduced, especially from the textile sector around the glove Cooper, Usually, huge amount of solid trashes is generated from construction and manufacturing process responsible for water and soil pollution, also reduced.

Moreover, owing to the reduction of export-import business, the movement of merchant ship and other vessels are reduced globally, which also reduces emission as well as marine pollution. Noise pollution is the elevated levels of sound, generated from different human activities e.

It is reported that, globally around million people are prone to hearing loss due to noise pollution Sims, World Health Organization predicted that in Europe alone, over million people are exposed to high noise levels, above the recommended limit WHO, Moreover, anthropogenic noise pollution has adverse impacts on wildlife through the changing balance in predator and prey detection and avoidance.

Due to reduction of vehicle movement during the lockdown period, the noise levels of Govindpuri metro station Delhi is reduced 50—60 dB, from dB Gandhiok and Ibra, As a result, city dwellers are now enjoying the chirping of birds, which usually ranges from dB Gandhiok and Ibra, Moreover, due to travel restrictions, the number of flights and vehicular movements have drastically reduced around the world, which have ultimately reduced the level of noise pollution.

Overall, COVID lockdown, and lessens of economic activities reduced the noise pollution around the globe. However, the places of natural beauty e. Moreover, visitors dump various wastes which impair natural beauty and create ecological imbalance Islam and Bhuiyan, For instance, Phuket, Thailand's most popular tourist's destination goes into lockdown on April 9, , due to the surge of Covid, where an average 5, visitors visit per day Cripps, Similarly, local administration imposed a ban on public gathering and tourist arrivals at Cox's Bazar sea beach, known as the longest unbroken natural sand sea beach in the world.

As a result of restriction, the color of sea water is changed, which usually remain turbid because of swimming, bathing, playing and riding motorized boats Rahman, Nature gets a time to assimilate human annoyance, and due to pollution reduction recently returning of dolphins was reported in the coast of Bay of Bengal Bangladesh and canals, waterways, and ports of Venice Italy after a long decade Rahman, ; Kundu, Since the outbreak of COVID, medical waste generation is increased globally, which is a major threat to public health and environment.

Also other cities like Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Hanoi, and Bangkok experienced similar increases, producing — m tonnes more medical waste per day than before the pandemic ADB, Such a sudden rise of hazardous waste, and their proper management has become a significant challenge to the local waste management authorities. So, waste generated from the hospitals e.

To protect from the viral infection, presently peoples are using face mask, hand gloves and other safety equipment, which increase the amount of healthcare waste. For instance, China increased the daily production of medical masks to However, due to lack of knowledge about infectious waste management, most people dump these e.

It is reported that, face mask and other plastic based protective equipment are the potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment Fadare and Okoffo, But, due to the pandemic many countries postponed the waste recycling activities to reduce the transmission of viral infection. Overall, due to disruption of routine municipal waste management, waste recovery and recycling activities, increasing the landfilling and environmental pollutants worldwide.

Recently, huge amount of disinfectants is applied into roads, commercial, and residential areas to exterminate SARS-CoV-2 virus. Such extensive use of disinfectants may kill non-targeted beneficial species, which may create ecological imbalance Islam and Bhuiyan, So, additional measures in wastewater treatment are essential, which is challenging for developing countries like Bangladesh, where municipal wastewater is drained into nearby aquatic bodies and rivers without treatment Islam and Azam, ; Rahman and Islam, China has already strengthened the disinfection process increased use of chlorine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading through the wastewater.

It is assumed that, all of these environmental consequences are short-term. So, it is high time to make a proper strategy for long-term benefit, as well as sustainable environmental management.

Sustainable industrialization: Industrialization is crucial for economic growth; however, it's time to think about sustainability. For sustainable industrialization, it is essential to shift to less energy-intensive industries, use of cleaner fuels and technologies, and strong energy efficient policies Pan, After a certain period, industrial zones should have been shut down in a circular way to reduce emission without hampering the national economy. Again, industries especially readymade garments RMG and others where a huge number of people work, proper distance and hygienic environment should maintain to reduce the spread of any infectious communicable disease.

Use of green and public transport: To reduce emissions, it is necessary to encourage people to use public transport, rather private vehicles. Besides, people should encourage to use bicycle in a short distance, and public bike sharing PBS system like China should be available for mass usage, which is not only environment friendly but also beneficial for health.

But, to maintain the daily needs and global economic growth, it is not possible to cut-off energy demand like a pandemic situation. Wastewater treatment and reuse: To control the challenges of water pollution, both industrial and municipal wastewater should be properly treated before discharge.

Besides, reuse of treated wastewater in non-production processes like toilet flushing and road cleaning can reduce the burden of excess water withdrawal. Waste recycling and reuse: To reduce the burden of wastes and environmental pollution, both industrial and municipal wastes should be recycled and reused. Moreover, hazardous and infectious medical waste should be properly managed by following the guidelines WHO, c.

So, government should implement extensive awareness campaign through different mass media, regarding the proper waste segregation, handling and disposal methods. Ecological restoration and ecotourism: For ecological restoration, tourist spots should periodically shutdown after a certain period. Moreover, ecotourism practice should be strengthened to promote sustainable livelihoods, cultural preservation, and biodiversity conservation Islam and Bhuiyan, Behavioral change in daily life: To reduce the carbon footprint and global carbon emission, it is necessary to change the behavior in our daily life and optimum consumption or resources like; avoid processed and take locally grown food, make compost from food waste, switch off or unplug electronic devices when not used, and use a bicycle instead of a car for short er distances.

International cooperation: To meet the sustainable environmental goals and protection of global environmental resources, such as the global climate and biological diversity, combined international effort is essential ICIMOD, Hence, responsible international authority like United Nations Environment Programme UN Environment should take effective role to prepare time-oriented policies, arrange international conventions, and coordination of global leaders for proper implementation.

Directly or indirectly, the pandemic is affecting human life and the global economy, which is ultimately affecting the environment and climate. It reminds us how we have neglected the environmental components and enforced human induced climate change. Moreover, the global response of COVID also teaches us to work together to combat against the threat to mankind.

Though the impacts of COVID on the environment are short-term, united and proposed time-oriented effort can strengthen environmental sustainability and save the earth from the effects of global climate change.

All authors listed have significantly contributed to the development and the writing of this article. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

The authors would like to acknowledge all the frontline doctors and healthcare workers fighting this pandemic. Authors are also thankful to the editor and anonymous reviewers who helped with the current shape of the paper by their constructive and insightful comments and suggestions.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Heliyon v.

Environmental effects of COVID-19 pandemic and potential strategies of sustainability

President Wilson proposes the League of Nations. Featuring milestone documents of American history from the National Archives. Founding of St. View Images Zion Canyon is a gorge in southwestern Utah. Lyndon Baines. Here is a sample of these records, from our most celebrated milestones to little-known surprises. THe Army Medical Department,

What is the relationship between military education and battlefield success? Experts have pointed to unit cohesion, numerical superiority, and technology, effective leadership, or ideology to explain battlefield success, but fewer scholars have acknowledged the role of military education Schifferle, ; Matheny, Military education does not seem essential for motivating a squad of soldiers to repress all natural human instincts and clear a house full of booby traps and bad guys, and it can be argued that Dwight Eisenhower did not succeed as commander of Allied forces in WWII because he came in first in his class at Fort Leavenworth, but because he had natural political instincts that would have led to his success anyway. While senior military leaders have emphasized the importance of military education Dempsey, , these doubts and similar doubts about military education are a persistent refrain in uniformed and civilian ranks Peters, ; Anonymous, ; Kelley and Johnson-Freese, ; Metz, ; see also Ricks, ; McGivern, If military education is of limited battlefield value, however, then why do militaries spend so much money and time on it? Military education is valuable because it provides an intellectual architecture for battlefield success.


or too much to shape the spiritual beliefs of private approach to Islamic education, based upon the re- ciations can cooperate with the state and provide /default/files/pdfs/Publications/epublications/AARK-​opportunitymeridian.org>.


What will the Middle East look like in 2030? An Israeli Perspective

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID is affecting every part of human lives, including the physical world. The measures taken to control the spread of the virus and the slowdown of economic activities have significant effects on the environment. Therefore, this study intends to explore the positive and negative environmental impacts of the COVID pandemic, by reviewing the available scientific literatures. This study indicates that, the pandemic situation significantly improves air quality in different cities across the world, reduces GHGs emission, lessens water pollution and noise, and reduces the pressure on the tourist destinations, which may assist with the restoration of the ecological system.

Following the age of Imperialism , the Sino-Arab relations have been halted for several centuries, until both gained independence in the 19th and 20th century. As a result, close economic, political and military relations between the two sides have been maintained. Since , no Arab country has official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China ROC , although they are diplomatically represented via the Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices. Arab sources claim Qutayba ibn Muslim briefly took Kashgar from China and withdrew after an agreement [14] but modern historians entirely dismiss this claim.

Further, such publications must contain no publicity or advertising that may promote violence and delinquency. The Principality of Andorra deplores the fact that the [said Convention] does not prohibit the use of children in armed conflicts. It also disagrees with the provisions of article 38, paragraphs 2 and 3, concerning the participation and recruitment of children from the age of Argentina Argentina.

Renewables Global Status Report

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Sino-Arab relations

Do governments make a strategic choice in deciding what type of security agent to use for repression? Research acknowledges the role of auxiliary groups such as militias in repression, yet surprisingly little attention is given to the state's formal domestic security agents, such as the police. We show that formal security organizations and auxiliary groups enhance the government's ability to repress by acting as strategic complements. As the better-regulated force, formal agents are often employed against violent riots, when regimes worry more about the ability to control the agents and their behavior more than about being visibly linked to the violence. In contrast, auxiliaries are often used to repress nonviolent campaigns, when the government seeks to benefit from agency loss in order not to be associated with the violence, which can be costly in these contexts. We empirically verify these linkages on country-month data for Africa using panel vector-autoregression pVAR , which accounts for endogeneity, not only between the dependent and independent variables, but also the dependent variables. We complement these statistical results with case-based evidence and descriptive original data from non-African countries.

However, the deal has been in jeopardy since President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States from it in In retaliation for the U.

The report brings together all the latest information about renewable energy market and industry developments, policy and investment trends. Try out the online version of the report. You can read it from beginning to end, move around within a chapter or jump between chapters using the handy links. Click on figures to share them on social media or use them in your own work. Not a native English speaker?

Introducing Realism in International Relations Theory

Download your free copy here. In the discipline of International Relations IR , realism is a school of thought that emphasises the competitive and conflictual side of international relations. However, when looking back from a contemporary vantage point, theorists detected many similarities in the thought patterns and behaviours of the ancient world and the modern world. They then drew on his writings, and that of others, to lend weight to the idea that there was a timeless theory spanning all recorded human history. Other bodies exist, such as individuals and organisations, but their power is limited.

For the first time in over two decades, Pakistan is not a foreign-policy priority for a new US administration. But that security imperative no longer drives US foreign policy. In place of counterterrorism, the United States is bound to be guided by great-power rivalries—foremost among them managing its relationship with China. This new reality raises the important question of how the United States should think about its relationship with Pakistan. A country of more than million people, Pakistan is geostrategically located at the mouth of the Persian Gulf and borders Iran, India, and China.

The following article addresses the question of how the Middle East might develop in the coming decade.

The Story of the World Vol. Fun Facts Another way of measuring the volume of an object is to completely submerge the object in water and then, measure the volume of water displaced by the object. Ministry Grid makes it simple to train your leaders and volunteers at the time and place best for them. Journal of Managerial Sciences Volume III, Number 1I Conflict is a problem when it: 1 Hampers productivity 2 Lowers morale 3 Causes more and continued conflicts 4 Causes inappropriate behaviors 9 Conflict Management in School The better educators and students understand the nature of conflict, the.

 - Номер четыре. Они со Сьюзан слушали этот концерт в прошлом году в университете в исполнении оркестра Академии Святого Мартина. Ему вдруг страшно захотелось увидеть ее - сейчас. Прохладный ветерок кондиционера напомнил ему о жаре на улице.

Звонивший выдержал зловещую паузу. - А что, если мистер Танкадо перестанет быть фактором, который следует принимать во внимание. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался, но в голосе звонившего слышалась подозрительная решимость.

Защитники поспешили на свою половину поля. - А ты? - спросил Беккер.  - Что предпочитаешь .

Меня зовут сеньор Ролдан. Буду рад вам помочь.

Фонтейн даже глазом не повел. - Каким временем мы располагаем. - У нас есть около часа, - сказал Джабба.  - Достаточно, чтобы созвать пресс-конференцию и все выложить.

ORG FROM: ETDOSH1SHA. EDU И далее текст сообщения: ГРОМАДНЫЙ ПРОГРЕСС. ЦИФРОВАЯ КРЕПОСТЬ ПОЧТИ ГОТОВА. ОНА ОТБРОСИТ АНБ НАЗАД НА ДЕСЯТИЛЕТИЯ.

Muslim Brotherhood

Как ты не понимаешь, что я ко всему этому непричастен. Развяжи. Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности.

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Download full-text PDF · Read full- encourage cooperation between traditional and modern market. State of the Market Relations on the Islamic Perspective.

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