Mechanisms Of Alternative Splicing Regulation Insights From Molecular And Genomics Approaches PdfBy Jano P. In and pdf 07.04.2021 at 12:31 8 min read
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- Alternative splicing
- Mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation: insights from molecular and genomics approaches
- Splicing mutations in human genetic disorders: examples, detection, and confirmation
- Splicing Regulation: A Molecular Device to Enhance Cancer Cell Adaptation
Alternative splicing AS is pervasive in human multi-exon genes and is a major contributor to expansion of the transcriptome and proteome diversity. The accurate recognition of alternative splice sites is regulated by information contained in networks of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. However, the mechanisms leading to splice site selection are not fully understood.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors provides an important means of genetic control and is a crucial step in the expression of most genes.
Point mutations at these consensus sequences can cause improper exon and intron recognition and may result in the formation of an aberrant transcript of the mutated gene. The splicing mutation may occur in both introns and exons and disrupt existing splice sites or splicing regulatory sequences intronic and exonic splicing silencers and enhancers , create new ones, or activate the cryptic ones. Usually such mutations result in errors during the splicing process and may lead to improper intron removal and thus cause alterations of the open reading frame. Recent research has underlined the abundance and importance of splicing mutations in the etiology of inherited diseases. The application of modern techniques allowed to identify synonymous and nonsynonymous variants as well as deep intronic mutations that affected pre-mRNA splicing. The bioinformatic algorithms can be applied as a tool to assess the possible effect of the identified changes.
Alternative splicing , or alternative RNA splicing , or differential splicing , is an alternative splicing process during gene expression that allows a single gene to code for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA mRNA produced from that gene. Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20, protein-coding genes. In this mode, a particular exon may be included in mRNAs under some conditions or in particular tissues, and omitted from the mRNA in others. The production of alternatively spliced mRNAs is regulated by a system of trans-acting proteins that bind to cis-acting sites on the primary transcript itself.
Metrics details. Dysregulation of alternative splicing AS is a critical signature of cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms of cancer-specific AS events, especially the impact of DNA methylation, are poorly understood. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, and the protein-protein interaction PPI network was constructed with the String website. The prognostic analysis was carried out with multivariate Cox regressions models. The different DNA methylation patterns between tumor and normal tissues at the corresponding alternative spliced exon boundaries were shown, and
Mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation: insights from molecular and genomics approaches
Decio L Eizirik , M. He has published over full papers and has received several prestigious awards. Pre-mRNA alternative splicing AS is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that affects gene expression, acting as a major generator of proteomic diversity. It regulates the incorporation of alternative sets of exons into mature mRNA molecules, allowing single genes to produce multiple, structurally distinct mRNA and protein isoforms that may have different biological properties 1. This tightly regulated process provides cells with the ability to rapidly adapt their transcriptome and proteome in response to intra and extracellular cues. The prevalence and extent of AS correlates with organismal complexity, suggesting that AS plays a key role for the development of complex phenotypic traits during evolution 4 , 5. AS regulation plays an important role in virtually all biological processes, including cell growth and death, development stage, pluripotency, differentiation, circadian rhythms, response to stimuli and disease 6 , 7 , 8.
Splicing mutations in human genetic disorders: examples, detection, and confirmation
Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. Consequently the identification and quantification of differentially spliced transcripts is pivotal for transcriptome analysis. Here, we review the currently available computational approaches for the analysis of RNA-sequencing data with a focus on exon-skipping events of alternative splicing and discuss the novelties as well as challenges faced to perform differential splicing analyses.
Splicing Regulation: A Molecular Device to Enhance Cancer Cell Adaptation
The discovery of the phenomenon that viral sequences are removed from a pre-mRNA and the remaining sequences are joined together led to a fundamental principle governing biology, known as RNA splicing. The identification stimulated theories for protein diversity, such as alternative splicing, which over time have been realized repeatedly through experiments. Constitutive splicing is the process of intron removal and exon ligation of the majority of the exons in the order in which they appear in a gene. Alternative splicing is a deviation from this preferred sequence where certain exons are skipped resulting in various forms of mature mRNA.
Alternative splicing AS represents a major resource for eukaryotic cells to expand the coding potential of their genomes and to finely regulate gene expression in response to both intra- and extracellular cues. Cancer cells exploit the flexible nature of the mechanisms controlling AS in order to increase the functional diversity of their proteome. By altering the balance of splice isoforms encoded by human genes or by promoting the expression of aberrant oncogenic splice variants, cancer cells enhance their ability to adapt to the adverse growth conditions of the tumoral microenvironment. Herein, we will review the most relevant cancer-related splicing events and the underlying regulatory mechanisms allowing tumour cells to rapidly adapt to the harsh conditions they may face during the occurrence and development of cancer. Removal of intronic sequences and joining of exons is one of the key events in the multistep process ensuring maturation of pre-mRNAs into mRNAs [ 2 ]. This process, called splicing, is carried out by the spliceosome, a complex macromolecular machinery composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 snRNP and a large number of auxiliary proteins [ 3 ]. Beside the conserved dinucleotide sequence that marks the ss, exon-intron junctions are not characterized by a stringent consensus and their short and degenerate nature is not sufficient to ensure perfect recognition by the spliceosome.
Additional molecular features, such as chromatin structure, RNA structure and alternative transcription initiation or alternative transcription.
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