Sikander And Porus History In Hindi PdfBy Archie H. In and pdf 05.04.2021 at 18:37 7 min read
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In a single decade of fighting, Alexander the Great conquered an enormous empire, as large as the one the Romans later painstakingly accumulated over hundreds of years. While the young Macedonian king was fortunate in at least one of his opponents—Darius, king of Persia, a faint-hearted commander who twice fled the field to avoid confronting him—Alexander personally deserved much of the credit for his victories.
King Porus was a famous Indian king, his real name was Purushotama. He was a legendary warrior and more war skills.
Sikandar history in hindi pdf
Macedonian victory. The battle resulted in a Greek victory and the surrender of Porus. Alexander's decision to cross the monsoon -swollen river despite close Indian surveillance, in order to catch Porus's army in the flank, has been referred to as one of his "masterpieces". The battle is historically significant for opening up the Indian subcontinent to Ancient Greek political Seleucid , Greco-Bactrian , Indo-Greek and cultural influences Greco-Buddhist art , which continued to have an impact for many centuries.
The battle took place on the east bank of the Hydaspes River now called the Jhelum River , a tributary of the Indus River in what is now the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Alexander later founded the city of Nicaea on the site; this city has yet to be discovered.
After Alexander defeated the last of the Achaemenid Empire 's forces under Bessus and Spitamenes in BC, he began a new campaign to further extend his empire towards India in BC. After fortifying Bactria with 10, men, Alexander commenced his invasion of India through the Khyber Pass. The primary Greek column entered the Khyber Pass, but a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander went through the northern route, taking the fortress of Aornos modern-day Pir-Sar along the way—a place of mythological significance to the Greeks as, according to legend, Herakles had failed to occupy it when he campaigned in India.
Here, the Hindu clans of Hindu Kush gave Alexander's army the toughest opposition they had faced, but Alexander still emerged victorious, despite being outnumbered, depending on the source, somewhere between and In early spring of the next year, Alexander formed an alliance with Taxiles also known as Ambhi Kumar , the King of Taxila. They combined their forces against Taxiles's neighbour, the King of Hydaspes , King Porus , who had chosen to spurn Alexander's command for him to surrender and was preparing for war.
Alexander had to subdue King Porus in order to keep marching east. Alexander could not afford to show any weakness if he wanted to keep the loyalty of the already subdued Indian princes. Porus had to defend his kingdom and chose the perfect spot to check Alexander's advance. Although he lost the battle, he became the most successful recorded opponent of Alexander.
Alexander fixed his camp in the vicinity of the town of Jhelum on the right banks of the river. Alexander knew that a direct approach had little chance of success and tried to find alternative fords.
He moved his mounted troops up and down the river bank each night while Porus shadowed him. This was where an uninhabited, wood-covered island divided the river. He would eventually attack Indian cavalry flanking both sides of Porus's main force from the right. Alexander's crossing of the Hydaspes in the face of Indian forces on the opposite bank was a notable achievement.
The complex preparations for the crossing were accomplished with the use of numerous feints and other forms of deception. Porus was kept continuously on the move until he decided it was a bluff and relaxed. On every visit to the site of the crossing, Alexander made a detour inland to maintain the secrecy of the plan. It was also reported that there was an Alexander look-alike who held sway in a mock royal tent near the base.
As a result, Porus, 'no longer expecting a sudden attempt under cover of darkness, was lulled into a sense of security. Porus perceived his opponent's manoeuvre and sent a small cavalry and chariot force under his son, also named Porus, to fight them off, hoping that he would be able to prevent his crossing. By chance a storm occurred that night which drowned out the sounds of the crossing.
Having crossed the river, Alexander advanced towards the location of Porus's camp with all his horsemen and foot archers, leaving his phalanx to follow up behind. Eventually the two forces met and arrayed themselves for the battle. The Indians were poised with cavalry on both flanks, fronted by their chariots, while their center comprising infantry with war elephants stationed every fifty feet in front of them, to deter the Macedonian cavalry.
The Indian war elephants were heavily armoured and had castle-like howdahs on their back carrying a trio of archers and javelin men. The Pauravan soldiers were dressed in flamboyantly hued outfits with steel helmets, bright scarves and baldrics, and wielded axes, lances and maces.
Porus, eschewing the usual tradition of Indian kings fighting from a chariot, was mounted atop his tallest war elephant. This animal in particular was not equipped with a howdah, as the king was clad in chain mail armour and hence had no need of the additional protection of a tower.
Alexander, noticing that Porus's disposition was strongest in the center, decided to attack with his cavalry first on the flanks, having his phalanx hold back until the Indian cavalry had been neutralized. However the latter were at significant disadvantage in close combat due to their lack of armour and the long reach of their opponent's sarissas. Even their heavy armour-piercing bows were inaccurate because of the slippery ground,  though the muddy ground was also an advantage to the lighter-armored Indians.
Alexander commenced the battle by sending his Dahae horse archers to harass the Indian right-wing cavalry. The Indian horsemen tried to form a double phalanx to face both attacks, but the necessary complicated manoeuvres brought even more confusion into their ranks, making it easier for the Macedonian cavalry to defeat them.
The Indian cavalry were thus routed, and fled to the safety of their elephants. The war elephants now advanced against the Macedonian cavalry, only to be confronted by the Macedonian phalanx. The powerful beasts caused heavy losses among the Macedonian foot, impaling many men with their steel-clad tusks and heaving some of them into the air before pulverizing them, and trampling and disorganizing their dense lines. Nevertheless, the Macedonian infantry resisted the attack bravely, with light infantry who tossed javelins at the elephants' mahouts and eyes while the heavy infantry attempted to hamstring the elephants with the two-sided axes and kopis.
The elephants were eventually repulsed and fled back to their own lines. Many of their mahouts had been struck down by Macedonian missiles before they could kill their panicked mounts with poisoned rods, and hence the maddened animals wrought enormous havoc, trampling many of their own infantry and cavalry to death.
Throughout the battle, Alexander is said to have observed with growing admiration the valour of Porus, and understood that Porus intended to die in combat rather than be captured. Hoping to save the life of such a competent leader and warrior, Alexander commanded Taxiles to summon Porus for surrender.
However, Porus became enraged on the very sight of his nemesis and tossed a spear at him in fury without bothering to listen to his proposal. Porus's aggressive response forced Taxiles to take flight on his steed.
In a similar manner, many other messengers dispatched by the determined Alexander were spurned until at last Meroes, a personal friend of Porus, convinced him to listen to Alexander's message.
Overpowered by thirst, the weary Porus finally dismounted his war elephant and demanded water. After being refreshed, he allowed himself to be taken to Alexander. On hearing that the Indian King was approaching, Alexander himself rode out to meet him and the famous surrender meeting took place. According to Arrian, Macedonian losses amounted to 80 foot soldiers, ten horse archers, twenty of the Companions and other horsemen.
Fuller saw Diodorus's casualty figures of 1, men killed as more realistic. Among the Indian leadership, two sons of Porus and his relative and ally Spitakes were killed during the battle, as well as most of his chieftains.
When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king". Following the battle, Alexander founded two cities in this region, one at the spot of the battle called Nicaea Greek for Victory in commemoration of his success and one on the other side of the Hydaspes called Alexandria Bucephalus , to honour his faithful steed, which died soon after this battle.
His army, exhausted from the continuous campaigning and concerned at the prospect of facing yet another gigantic Indian army, demanded that they should return to the west. This happened at the Hyphasis modern Beas. Historians do not consider that this action by Alexander's troops represented a mutiny but called it an increase in military unrest amongst the troops, which forced Alexander to finally give in.
The main reasons for the Pauravans' defeat were Alexander's use of tactics, and the Macedonians' superior discipline and technology. They did not have a well supported military infrastructure or a standing army. The Pauravan infantry and cavalry were poorly armoured, lacking in metal armour, and their short swords were no match against the long spears of the Macedonians.
Porus himself failed to take the initiative, mainly trying to counter his opponent's moves. Greek historians agree that Porus fought bravely until the end.
During the later rule of the Maurya Empire , tactician Kautilya took the Battle of the Hydaspes as a lesson and highlighted the need for military training before battle. The first Mauryan emperor, Chandragupta , maintained a standing army. The chariot corps played a marginal role in Mauryan military infrastructure. When he saw that Alexander was winning a brilliant victory he pressed on and, as his men were fresh, took over the pursuit.
For having found it hard enough to defeat an enemy who brought but twenty thousand foot and two thousand horse into the field, they thought they had reason to oppose Alexander's design of leading them on to pass the Ganges, too, which they were told was thirty-two furlongs broad and a fathom deep, and the banks on the further side covered with multitudes of enemies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Battle of Jhelum disambiguation.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Hydaspes River , modern-day Punjab Province , Pakistan. Campaigns of Alexander the Great. This article is part of a series about. Cambridge University Press. Alexander of Macedon, — B.
University of California Press. Dictionary of Battles. New York. Greece and Rome At War. Macdonald Phoebus Ltd, , p. Eggermont, Alexander's campaign in Southern Punjab History of the Macedonians. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 October War Elephants. Greenwood Publishing Group. London: Greenhill Books. Age of the Nandas and Mauryas. Motilal Banarsidass. Alexander the Great and His Time. University of Nebraska Press.
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Sikandar can be considered the cinematographic culmination of a Hindu The Story (History) and its narrators: Plutarch, Sohrab Modi and Robin Lane Fox. Despite the fact that India / Porus could get rid of the British forces / Alexander with.
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Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. Questions or concerns? Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? Let us know. Battle of the Hydaspes , bce , fourth and last pitched battle fought by Alexander the Great during his campaign of conquest in Asia.
Туннельный блок сейчас рухнет. Джабба повернул голову к экрану ВР. Атакующие линии рвались вперед, они находились уже на волосок от пятой, и последней, стены, Последние минуты существования банка данных истекали.
Она решила включить громкую связь. - Слушаю, Джабба. Металлический голос Джаббы заполнил комнату: - Мидж, я в главном банке данных. У нас тут творятся довольно странные вещи.
Хороший вопрос, подумал Беккер, рисуя в воображении горы Смоки-Маунтинс. - Просто неформальная дипломатическая любезность, - солгал. - Дипломатическая любезность? - изумился старик. - Да, сэр. Уверен, что человеку вашего положения хорошо известно, что канадское правительство делает все для защиты соотечественников от неприятностей, которые случаются с ними в этих… э-э… скажем так, не самых передовых странах.
- Это ведь хорошо, правда. - Нет! - взорвался Джабба. - Это плохо.
Вздохнув, она просунула руку в углубление с цифровым замком и ввела свой личный код из пяти цифр. Через несколько секунд двенадцатитонная стальная махина начала поворачиваться. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями, но они упрямо возвращали ее к .
Ключ к Цифровой крепости, внезапно осенило ее, прячется где-то в глубинах этого компьютера. Когда Сьюзан закрывала последний файл, за стеклом Третьего узла мелькнула тень. Она быстро подняла глаза и увидела возвращающегося Грега Хейла. Он приближался к двери. - Черт его дери! - почти беззвучно выругалась Сьюзан, оценивая расстояние до своего места и понимая, что не успеет до него добежать.
Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку.
Porus (IPA: [porus]) or Poros was an ancient Indian king, whose territory spanned the region Sohrab Modi portrayed as Porus in Sikandar movie in ; Prithviraj Kapoor portrayed as Porus in movie Sikandar-e-Azam in Porus History of Porus, Patiala, Dr. Buddha Parkash. Download as PDF · Printable version.