Nih Coq10 And Cancer 2018 PdfBy Rebecca M. In and pdf 07.04.2021 at 21:24 7 min read
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- Cancer Alternative Therapies
- Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Current State of the Problem
- What are the benefits of CoQ10?
- Coenzyme Q10 (PDQ®)–Patient Version
To better evaluate the efficacy of CoQ10 on the inflammatory markers in breast cancer patients, we conducted a clinical study of patients with breast cancer undergoing tamoxifen therapy.
Cancer Alternative Therapies
Coenzyme Q CoQ is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins. It is endogenously produced in all cells by a highly regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial multiprotein complex.
Here, we review the current knowledge of CoQ 10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ 10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results from clinical trials based on CoQ 10 supplementation. There is evidence that supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging based mainly on improvements in bioenergetics. Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ There is a need for further studies and clinical trials involving a greater number of participants undergoing longer treatments in order to assess the benefits of CoQ 10 treatment in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, kidney diseases, and human fertility.
Coenzyme Q CoQ, ubiquinone is a unique lipid-soluble antioxidant that is produced de novo in animals Laredj et al. It is composed of a benzoquinone ring and a polyisoprenoid tail containing between 6 and 10 subunits that are species-specific and confers stability to the molecule inside the phospholipid bilayer.
The isoprene chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains six subunits CoQ 6 , seven subunits are present in Crucianella maritima CoQ 7 , eight in E. The ETC complexes are assembled into respiratory supercomplexes in order to function efficiently and prevent electron leakage to oxygen that ultimately results in the production of reactive oxygen species ROS Genova and Lenaz, ; Guo et al.
Complex I stability is determined by CoQ redox state Guaras et al. The multiple functions of CoQ A Mitochondria. B Cell membrane activities of CoQ Furthermore, CoQ 10 also regulates apoptosis by preventing lipid peroxidation. By lowering lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein LDL particles that contributes to atherosclerosis Thomas et al.
The anti-oxidant function of CoQ is especially important in the plasma membrane by reducing vitamins C and E, and in preventing ceramide-mediated apoptosis Navas et al. It has been proposed that NAD P H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 NQO1 acts as a redox-sensitive switch to regulate the response of cells to changes in the redox environment Ross and Siegel, The pharmacokinetics variability of the different compositions of CoQ 10 may result in fairly different plasma concentration-time profiles after CoQ 10 administration Weis et al.
Indeed, the major amount of orally supplemented CoQ 10 is eliminated via feces, with only a fraction of ingested CoQ 10 reaching the blood and ultimately the various tissues and organs Bentinger et al.
For these reasons, CoQ appears suitable for use in the treatment of different diseases. Here, we present recent advances in CoQ 10 treatment of human diseases and the slowing down of the aging process, and highlight new strategies aimed at delaying the progression of chronic diseases by CoQ 10 supplementation. CoQ 10 biosynthesis pathway is initiated in the cytosol where the isoprene tail is made from the conversion of mevalonate, a key intermediate involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and dolichol and protein prenylation adducts Trevisson et al.
The quinone ring unit is also produced in the cytosol from tyrosine or phenylalanine and attached to the isoprene tail inside mitochondria through the activity of COQ2 -encoded polyprenyl transferase Laredj et al. The benzoquinone ring is then modified in the inner mitochondrial membrane and this process involves at least 12 nuclear-encoded proteins COQ Bentinger et al. The assembly and stabilization of the synthome is far from being understood as it may encompass yet to be discovered new interacting protein partners Allan et al.
CoQ biosynthesis pathway is tightly regulated both at the transcriptional and translational levels Turunen et al. CoQ 10 deficiency can be caused by mutations in COQ genes that encode proteins of the CoQ biosynthesis pathway primary deficiency or as a secondary deficiency caused by defects in other mitochondrial functions that are indirectly involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ 10 Doimo et al.
Primary CoQ 10 deficiency is characterized by highly heterogeneous clinical signs, with the severity and symptoms varying greatly as is the age of onset, which can be from birth to the seventh decade, and beyond Salviati et al.
These patients may also be presenting symptoms of myopathy, retinopathy, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; 3 unexplained ataxia particularly when family history suggests a recessive autosomal heritage; and 4 exercise intolerance appearing from 6 to 33 years of age, with muscular weakness and high serum creatine kinase.
Clinical phenotypes caused by mutations in CoQ synthome and the effect of CoQ 10 therapy in humans. Abnormally low CoQ 10 levels can be associated with mitochondrial pathologies caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the oxidative phosphorylation chain or of other cellular functions not directly associated with mitochondrial function Yubero et al.
Known as secondary CoQ 10 deficiencies, these disorders could represent an adaptive mechanism to bioenergetic requirements. For example, secondary CoQ 10 deficiency can appear in some patients with defects in glucose transport caused by GLUT1 mutations Yubero et al. A group of patients with very severe neuropathies showed impaired CoQ 10 synthesis, indicating the importance of CoQ 10 homeostasis in human health Asencio et al.
In individuals with primary CoQ 10 deficiency, early treatment with high-dose oral CoQ 10 supplementation improves the pathological phenotype, limits the progression of encephalopathy, and helps recover kidney damage Montini et al.
However, patients suffering from secondary CoQ 10 deficiency may fail to respond to CoQ 10 supplementation Pineda et al.
A significant reduction in the rate of CoQ biosynthesis has been proposed to occur during the aging process and aging-associated diseases Beyer et al. However, there are discrepancies about the relationship between the levels of CoQ and the progression of aging. However, other in vivo studies have reported a direct association between longevity and mitochondrial levels of CoQ in the Samp1 model of senescence-accelerated mice Tian et al.
Supplementation with ubiquinol has been shown to activate mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis Schmelzer et al. The concentrations of CoQ 10 in the plasma of elderly people are positively correlated with levels of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations Del Pozo-Cruz et al. Older individuals given a combination of selenium and CoQ 10 over a 4-year period reported an improvement in vitality, physical performance, and quality of life Johansson et al.
Furthermore, CoQ 10 supplementation confers health benefits in elderly people by preventing chronic oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases Gonzalez-Guardia et al.
Despite these evidences, more reliable clinical trials focusing on the elderly are needed before considering CoQ 10 as an effective anti-aging therapy Varela-Lopez et al.
CoQ 10 has been used in the treatment of a number of human pathologies and disorders. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have examined the safety and efficacy of CoQ 10 in treating human diseases.
As indicated below, prudence is needed when interpreting the results of several clinical trials. A combination of factors including the small number of trials, substantial differences that exist in the experimental designs, dose and duration of treatment, the number of patients enrolled, and the relative short follow-up periods contribute to apparent inconsistencies in the published data.
Despite these limitations, CoQ 10 can be considered as an important coadjuvant in the treatment of different diseases, especially in chronic conditions affecting the elderly.
The number of deaths attributed to heart failure is increasing worldwide and has become a global health issue. Heart failure is accompanied by increased ROS formation, which can be attenuated with antioxidants. A systematic review has recently examined the efficacy of CoQ 10 supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease CVD without lifestyle intervention Flowers et al.
These authors interpreted the results to indicate a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure without improvements in other CVD risk factors, such as diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL- and high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol, and triglycerides. A second meta-analysis explored the impact of CoQ 10 in the prevention of complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and the results showed that CoQ 10 therapy lowers the need of inotropic drugs and reduces the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias after surgery de Frutos et al.
Short-term daily treatment 12 weeks or less with mg CoQ 10 improves left ventricular ejection fraction in patients suffering from heart failure Fotino et al. In contrast, no effect of CoQ 10 was observed on left ventricular ejection fraction or exercise capacity in patients with heart failure Madmani et al. CoQ 10 has been proposed for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, analysis of more than seven trials involving participants showed that CoQ 10 supplementation for at least 12 weeks had no significant effects on glycemic control, lipid profile, or blood pressure in diabetic patients, but was able to reduce serum triglycerides levels Suksomboon et al.
Supplementation with CoQ 10 has produced beneficial effects in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia by initiating changes in blood lipid concentration. A combination of CoQ 10 with red yeast rice, berberina, policosanol, astaxanthin, and folic acid significantly decreased total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose in the blood while increasing HDL-cholesterol levels Pirro et al.
However, the impact of CoQ 10 alone without the other supplements was not directly assessed. Nevertheless, there are reports to suggest that CoQ 10 is very effective in reducing serum triglycerides levels Suksomboon et al. Chronic treatment with statins is associated with myopathy Law and Rudnicka, , a side-effect representing a broad clinical spectrum of disorders largely associated with a decrease in CoQ 10 levels and selenoprotein activity Thompson et al.
Statins impair skeletal muscle and myocardial bioenergetics Littarru and Langsjoen, via inhibition of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway implicated in cholesterol and CoQ biosynthesis, and reduction in mitochondrial complex III activity of the electron transport chain Schirris et al.
A total of 60 patients suffering from statin-associated myopathy were enrolled in a 3-month study to test for efficacy of CoQ 10 and selenium treatment. A consistent reduction in their symptoms, including muscle pain, weakness, cramps, and fatigue was observed, suggesting an attenuation of the side-effects of chronic statin treatment following CoQ 10 supplementation Fedacko et al.
In a previous study, however, 44 patients suffering from statin-induced myalgia saw no improvement in their conditions after receiving CoQ 10 for 3 months Young et al. Other studies have determined that CoQ 10 supplementation improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients treated with statins Hamilton et al.
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in diabetic kidney disease, and experiments performed on rats showed a promising protective effect of ubiquinol in the kidneys Ishikawa et al. However, a meta-analysis study examining the efficiency of antioxidants on the initiation and progression of diabetic kidney disease revealed that antioxidants, including CoQ 10 , did not have reliable effects against this disease Bolignano et al.
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with many age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The authors also surmised that CoQ 10 supplementation decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers in the elderly with low CoQ 10 levels Fan et al. More recently, CoQ 10 has been found to markedly attenuate the elevated expression of inflammatory and thrombotic risk markers in monocytes of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, thereby improving endothelial function and mitochondrial activity in these patients Perez-Sanchez et al.
A proinflammatory profile has also been associated with the progression of neurological symptoms in Down syndrome patients Wilcock and Griffin, Supplementation with CoQ 10 confers protection against the progression of oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in Down syndrome patients Tiano and Busciglio, ; Tiano et al.
Preclinical studies demonstrated that CoQ can preserve mitochondrial function and reduce the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the case of Parkinson's disease Schulz and Beal, Experimental studies in animal models suggest that CoQ 10 may protect against neuronal damage caused by ischemia, atherosclerosis, and toxic injury Ishrat et al.
Moreover, CoQ 10 deficiency was observed at a higher frequency in Parkinson's disease, underscoring its utility as a peripheral biomarker Mischley et al. For this reason, it has been suggested that CoQ 10 supplementation could benefit patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Two reviews on recent clinical trials testing CoQ 10 supplementation reported the lack of improvement in motor functions in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, which led the authors to conclude that the use of CoQ 10 in these patients is unnecessary Liu and Wang, ; Negida et al.
However, other clinical trials in patients suffering from Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Friedreich's ataxia suggest that CoQ 10 supplementation could delay functional decline, particularly with regard to Parkinson's disease Beal, ; Shults, Indeed, four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies comparing CoQ 10 treatment in patients at early or mid-stage Parkinson's disease reported improvements in daily activities and other parameters Liu et al.
In contrast, a more recent multicenter randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial with CoQ 10 in patients with early-stage Huntington's disease did not slow the rate of patients' functional decline McGarry et al. There is not enough evidence to indicate that CoQ 10 supplementation can delay the progression of Huntington's disease, at least in its early stages. Initiated in , the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study evaluates the safety, tolerability, and impact of different antioxidants on biomarkers in this disease.
The role of plasma membrane CoQ 10 in autism has been recently proposed Crane et al. Patients with autistic spectrum disorders ASDs exhibit higher proportions of mitochondrial dysfunctions than the general population Rossignol and Frye, , as evidenced by developmental regression, seizures, and elevated serum levels of lactate or pyruvate in ASD patients.
Male infertility has been associated with oxidative stress, and CoQ 10 levels in seminal fluid is considered an important biomarker of healthy sperm Gvozdjakova et al. Administration of CoQ 10 improves semen parameters in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility Arcaniolo et al.
With regard to female infertility, the decrease in mitochondrial activity associated with CoQ 10 deficiency probably affects the granulosa cells' capacity to generate ATP Ben-Meir et al. Despite the absence of previous clinical trials that evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ 10 supplementation in female infertility, these studies show promising results of this natural supplement in boosting female fertility during the prime reproductive period.
CoQ 10 deficiency can be associated with a number of human diseases and age-related chronic conditions. In other cases, deficiency in CoQ 10 and its associated antioxidative activity can significantly increase the level of oxidative damage.
It seems clear that supplementation with CoQ 10 improves mitochondrial function and confers antioxidant protection for organs and tissues affected by various pathophysiological conditions. Effects of CoQ 10 in human diseases.
The positive effect of CoQ 10 has been already demonstrated in mitochondrial syndromes associated with CoQ 10 deficiency, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases as well as in the delay of some age-related processes. Dashed lines depict other positive effects of CoQ 10 with regard to kidney disease, fertility, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, more research is needed to validate these observations.
Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Current State of the Problem
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Coenzyme Q10 is an essential chemical that the body produces naturally. A deficiency of this chemical can have adverse effects, and coenzyme Q10 supplements may offer health benefits. In this article, we discuss the health benefits and risks of taking coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 supplements. CoQ10 is an antioxidant that the body produces naturally and stores in components of the cell called mitochondria. It has associations with energy, protecting cells, and providing heart benefits.
Published online Feb 5. doi: /fphys diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic kidney disease.
What are the benefits of CoQ10?
Coenzyme Q CoQ is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins. It is endogenously produced in all cells by a highly regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial multiprotein complex. Here, we review the current knowledge of CoQ 10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ 10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results from clinical trials based on CoQ 10 supplementation. There is evidence that supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging based mainly on improvements in bioenergetics. Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ
Coenzyme Q10 (PDQ®)–Patient Version
You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about is complementary and alternative medicine CAM. CAM is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Examples of CAM therapies are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines.
NCBI Bookshelf. Brittany Sood ; Michael Keenaghan. Authors Brittany Sood 1 ; Michael Keenaghan 2. CoQ10 is not FDA-approved to treat any medical condition although it is widely available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and recommended by primary care providers and specialists alike. Diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, fibromyalgia, diabetes, cancer, mitochondrial diseases, muscular diseases, and heart failure are associated with decreased circulating levels of CoQ Statin drugs, of note, block the production of an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, a biochemical pathway that leads to the production of CoQ
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years, it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that COQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of COQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation.
Questions and Answers About Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Oxidative damage in endothelial cells is proposed to play an important role in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. We previously reported that the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 CoQ 10 H 2 effectively inhibits oxidative stress and decelerates senescence in senescence-accelerated mice. Here, we treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVECs with H 2 O 2 and investigated the protective effect of CoQ 10 H 2 against senescence, oxidative damage, and reduction in cellular functions. CoQ 10 H 2 prevented apoptosis and reductions in mitochondrial function and reduced migration and tube formation activity of H 2 O 2 -treated cells. The present study indicated that CoQ 10 H 2 protects endothelial cells against senescence by promoting mitochondrial function and thus could delay vascular aging. Cardiovascular diseases CVD continue to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide [ 1 ]. This trend is particularly pronounced among aged populations in many countries.
NCBI Bookshelf. This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of people with cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This cancer information summary provides an overview of the use of coenzyme Q 10 in cancer therapy.
CoQ10 is a compound that is made in the body. The Q and the 10 in coenzyme Q10 refer to the groups of chemicals that make up the product. CoQ10 is also known by the following names:. A coenzyme helps an enzyme do its job. An enzyme is a protein that speeds up the rate at which chemical reactions take place in cells of the body.
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В трех тысячах миль от Вашингтона мини-автобус мобильного наблюдения мчался по пустым улицам Севильи. Он был позаимствован АНБ на военной базе Рота в обстановке чрезвычайной секретности. Двое сидевших в нем людей были напряжены до предела: они не в первый раз получали чрезвычайный приказ из Форт-Мида, но обычно эти приказы не приходили с самого верха.
Глаза его партнера не отрывались от картинки на большом мониторе, установленном под крышей мини-автобуса. - Никаких. Продолжай движение. ГЛАВА 78 Джабба обливался потом перед спутанными проводами: он все еще лежал на спине, зажав в зубах портативный фонарик.
Как мило, - вздохнула. - Итак, твой диагноз? - потребовал. Сьюзан на минуту задумалась.
Coenzyme Q10 is a dietary supplement, and use of it as a treatment for Get detailed information about Coenzyme Q10 use in cancer in this summary for clinicians. a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). ; NBK April 21, ; NBK September 30,