Strengths And Weaknesses Of Mixed Method Research Pdf


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He has around 8 years of teaching experience at higher education levels in the field of computer science and management. During that time, he had the possibility to work in partnership with big international organizations and universities in several European projects.

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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Lisle Published Sociology Caribbean Curriculum. There is increasing interest in the field of mixed methods research and the diverse ways in which quantitative and qualitiative methodologies can be systematically combined. The first part of this paper describes the emergence of mixed mentods research as a community of practice, distinct from the two dominant paradigms.

Mixed methods research

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Strengths and weaknesses of using mixed methods to detect the sustainable practices of backpackers: a reflexive account.

Ben Iaquinto. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionAn important component in the ongoing pursuit of sustainability is public involvement Dale et al. Whether framed as consumers, citizens or "the community", a burgeoning response to the question of gauging public involvement in sustainability has been through focusing on social practices Bartiaux, ;Doyle and Davies, ;Hargreaves, ;Lane and Gorman-Murray, ;Pink, Scholars have invented a range of techniques for capturing practices, from interview or questionnaire-based formats Barr et al.

But when conducting practice-based sustainability research, identifying the practices of interest remains a methodological challenge. Therefore, this paper is primarily about the methods used to detect sustainable practices.

It seeks to answer the question e what are the strengths and weaknesses of using mixed methods to detect the sustainable practices of backpackers? Rather than suggesting a new method for apprehending practices, in this paper I use a reflexive stance to critically assess the ability of mixed methods to detect sustainable practices. In my doctoral research project I used a mix of four common social research methods e interviews, participant observation, questionnaires and content analysis, combined with a theoretical perspective based on practice theory to understand the environmental, social and economic sustainability practices of backpackers.

I have subsequently described how backpackers practice each of these forms of sustainability in another publication Iaquinto, in press , but the strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods for detecting this range of sustainable practices has not been explained.

Doing so may assist other researchers working in similar fields to manage their own methodological challenges. The reflexive stance is adopted to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Bourdieu Bourdieu , advocates combining mixed methods with a reflexive approach to address an issue germane to all social research e that every social researcher is located within the social world they are attempting to describe and so social scientists are themselves part of the phenomenon they are studying.

In social research, the application of any method varies depending on the context, so reflexivity can assist methodological reflection and refinement.

As a form of long-term budget tourism, backpacking is a specific type of social research context which comes with its own methodological advantages and limitations for the conduct of sustainable consumption research. The use of backpacking as the empirical focus in this paper explicates the process required to detect sustainable practices in the context of tourism. The reflexive stance enables a detailed explanation of how mixed methods were actually applied in the field during this research.

Reflexivity allows the strengths and weaknesses of each method for detecting sustainable practices to be clearly assessed. The use of the first person "I" helps to make clear my involvement in the research, so readers can better appreciate the contingent and situated qualities of my interpretations. Over the past decade or so, the dominance of positivism in tourism research has been extensively challenged and "innovative and radical lines of inquiry" are now commonplace Tribe, p.

A range of tourism journals and edited volumes include the works of critically engaged, reflexively oriented and theoretically prolific scholars Ateljevic et al. The growing maturity of sustainable tourism research notwithstanding, the field remains limited by a lack of integration with the broader social sciences Bramwell, , and a heavy focus on environmental concerns excluding other ways sustainability can be understood.

While the use of mixed methods could provide new insights, they remain surprisingly underutilised for such an applied field Lu and Nepal, By reflexively engaging with these methods opportunities for understanding the "dynamic, unpredictable and often messy process" of research are provided Ateljevic et al. Despite the institutionalisation of backpacking Noy, and the substantial academic interest in the topic, there remains a lack of attention focussed on backpacker research methods some exceptions include Lozanski and Beres, ;Paris, While a number of reflexively aligned and critically engaged backpacker studies have emerged Lozanski, ;Matthews, ;Teo and Leong, , there have been calls for enhanced critique and theoretical development within the field of backpacker research Bennett, Studies of backpackers have commonly used participant observation Sorensen, , interviews Noy, , or questionnaires Moscardo, but a mix of methods could help make a different contribution as they can provide more comprehensive understandings McKendrick, Since identifying practices is a persistent methodological challenge in practice-based research, I highlight the ability of my chosen mix of methods to adequately detect sustainable practices.

Practice theory in mixed methods researchRecently, a "practice turn" Schatzki et al. This shift is also evident in some studies addressing sustainability in tourism Barr et al.

When attempting to understand backpacker sustainability practices, I was influenced by Reckwitz practice theory.

For Reckwitz, practice is "a routinized type of behaviour" that includes interconnected "forms of bodily activities, forms of mental activities, 'things' and their use, a background knowledge in the form of understanding, know-how, states of emotion and motivational knowledge" p.

People can then be bearers of practice and perform practices non-cognitively Reckwitz, ;Shove et al. This was a useful insight in my study because I had found the context of backpacking induced a range of sustainable practices without backpackers consciously choosing to perform them Iaquinto, in press. Practices can be shaped by varying social, geographical and cultural contexts Gibson et al.

When people become backpackers they also become involuntary carriers of various sustainability practices. Conventional social research methods such as questionnaires and interviews, which are quite useful for capturing practices conducted consciously, may not be so adept at detecting those practices conducted outside conscious awareness, making participant observation an important addition to the suite of methods.

Thus mixed methods can capture a variety of practices, from those intentionally performed to others which emerge as part of the flow of "routinized social life" Shove et al.

Thus mixed methods offer three main advantages over single method approaches e they can answer some research questions single method designs cannot, they can present a greater range of opposing views and they can offer more persuasive conclusions Tashakkori and Teddlie, A mixed methods study is considered to be that which uses both quantitative and qualitative methods Philip, ;Richins, Mixed methods studies can be further categorised based on when each dataset is collected sequentially or concurrently , the type of epistemology the study is grounded in pragmatist, critical realist and how the data is combined convergence, complementarity or divergence Castro et al.

Usually though, mixed methods are based on a pragmatist worldview that is focussed on using methods "that work" Creswell and Plano Clark, The study upon which this paper is based was also informed by a pragmatist perspective as a mix of methods was thought to be the best way to understand the everyday sustainability practices of backpackers. It involved a combination of qualitative methods in the form of interviews and participant observation, and the quantitative methods of questionnaires and content analysis to develop a "negotiated account" Bryman, p.

Fries argued the strength of mixed method approaches is their ability to capture the relationships between overarching societal structures class, gender, institutions etc and individual actions including practices.

The study of practices provides a way to link societal structures with individual actions as it can illuminate how overarching structures such as institutions, gender and class emerge through and are maintained by everyday practices Jones and Murphy, Mixed methods have also been advocated as a way to manage the challenges of comprehensively studying such a "multifaceted and complex phenomenon" as tourism Puhakka et al.

While mixed methods approaches in tourism remain uncommon compared to single method papers Lu and Nepal, , they have nonetheless been applied in a range of sustainable tourism research contexts Canavan, ;Coles et al.

Here I critically reflect on the mixed methods used during my doctoral research project that was concerned with how sustainability is or is not practiced by backpackers. The next section describes the research project.

The discussion section is based around my experiences attempting to become part of the backpacking community in person and online. It finishes by reflecting on how the mix of methods were analysed, before going to a concluding section. MethodologyThis study began with a methodological pilot phase conducted between November and January Paper questionnaires and interview questions were tested amongst backpackers in Melbourne.

Visiting hostels to distribute questionnaires and conduct interviews provided an opportunity to pilot participant observation.

While waiting for respondents to complete questionnaires, I would note the layout of each hostel and the ways backpackers interacted, recording my reflections in a notebook upon leaving. An important result of the study emerged during this phase. I quickly realised the word "sustainability" was meaningless to backpackers. Trialling a constructivist approach in respect to questionnaire design, I asked backpackers to define sustainability or whatever it was they considered sustainability to be.

They responded with at best dictionary definitions of sustainability: "sustainability means the way to sustain", "not sure exactly what it means" and "ok with the condition of now". In effect, I was asking backpackers to apply a "sustainability lens" to their backpacking activities which resulted in very superficial responses.

This was further evident in their answers to my interview questions Ben: Do you consider yourself environmentally aware? Liam: A little bit. I'm a little bit aware, yeah. Interviews could be incredibly short, sometimes only lasting five minutes as respondents gave one sentence answers despite being provided with the opportunity to elaborate. When attempting to interview two Swedish backpackers in Melbourne, they were bewildered by almost everything I said.

The words I was saying "sustainability", "environment", "carbon offsets", "water", "energy" , did not have any meaning to them and they were clearly uncomfortable with my questions. I ended the interview attempt after five minutes, resolving to critically reconsider my interview technique. While I had decided on mixed methods at the beginning of my candidature, it was only during the pilot stage of the research that I was introduced to practice theory for a comprehensive overview, see volumes edited by Lane and Gorman-Murray, ;Shove and Spurling, In the pilot questionnaires and interviews I had attempted to engage backpackers in conversations relating to global sustainability issues e climate change, species extinction and sea level rise.

As is evident from the quotes above, this strategy resulted in vague and disinterested responses as backpackers struggled to relate these global problems to their daily concerns and felt powerless as individuals to alleviate them. In contrast, practice theory locates sustainability as a practice or a performance that emerges from the day-to-day activities of citizens, rather than via the actions of various authorities such as governments, industry, planners and policy makers.

Using practice theory, sustainability was brought down to the individual level enabling backpackers to relate to it and was thus an important tool for communicating sustainability concepts with backpackers both online and in person.

Interviews were then redesigned around six questions, two each for environmental, social and economic sustainability see Iaquinto, in press;Speed, They were: do you think about your impact on the environment? What do you do about it? Do you try meeting local people while backpacking? Do you try to learn about the culture of the places you go too? What do you spend your money on? Do you think about where you spend your money, like if it is a locally owned business or corporate chain?

Note how I never use the word "sustainability". Interviews were then piloted again, with the new questions providing a better understanding of backpacker sustainability practices. The new interview questions and the use of practice theory then informed a redesign of the questionnaire, which was launched online in August Practice theory also informed the conduct of participant observation, based in central Australia between October and December , by focusing my attention toward sustainability-related "embodied doings and sayings" Valtonen et al.

That "sayings" were also considered to be practices assisted the content analysis as I could not confirm if the sustainable practices encouraged by the industry were actually performed by backpackers.

Practices were always the focus of the content analysis as it was included as a method after I had been introduced to practice theory. As two of the piloted methods were qualitative participant observation and interviews , and one quantitative questionnaires , I anticipated this lack of balance might be received negatively during my confirmation of candidature. Content analysis was then added as the second quantitative method.

The original plan was to do a search of backpacker blogs using Google Blog Search. During the pilot phase, thousands of blogs were found which would have required searching through hundreds of pages of quite superficial content, as the following quote indicates: "So bringing the blog up to date with the recent events in Melbourne e the weather has improved but still not the heat we all expected!

Mixed-Methods Designs

Jump to main content. Download PDF Version. This brief focuses on using mixed methods to evaluate patient-centered medical home PCMH models. The series is designed to expand the toolbox of methods used to evaluate and refine PCMH models. The PCMH is a primary care approach that aims to improve quality, cost, and patient and provider experience. PCMH models emphasize patient-centered, comprehensive, coordinated, accessible care, and a systematic focus on quality and safety. Wisdom J and Creswell JW.

Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular and is widely acknowledged as a means of achieving a more complex understanding of research problems. Combining both the in-depth, contextual views of qualitative research with the broader generalizations of larger population quantitative approaches, mixed methods research can be used to produce a rigorous and credible source of data. Using this methodology, the same core issue is investigated through the collection, analysis, and interpretation of both types of data within one study or a series of studies. Multiple designs are possible and can be guided by philosophical assumptions. Both qualitative and quantitative data can be collected simultaneously or sequentially in any order through a multiphase project. Integration of the two data sources then occurs with consideration is given to the weighting of both sources; these can either be equal or one can be prioritized over the other.

Traditionally, there are three branches of methodology: quantitative numeric data , qualitative observational or interview data , and mixed methods using both types of data. Psychology relies heavily on quantitative-based data analyses but could benefit from incorporating the advantages of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies into one cohesive framework. Whereas quantitative data may be collected via measures such as self-reports and physiological tests, qualitative data are collected via focus groups, structured or semistructured interviews, and other forms Creswell, MM hypotheses differ in comparison with solely quantitative or qualitative research questions. Not only must the quantitative and qualitative data be integrated, but the hypotheses also must be integrated. MM practitioners promote the development of a theory-based set of three hypotheses. Specialists encourage researchers to construct three separate types of hypotheses for an MM research project.

Mixed Methods Research

Mixed methods research MMR has found an increased interest in the field of health outcomes research. Consideration for both qualitative and quantitative perspectives has become key to contextualising patient experiences in a clinically meaningful measurement framework. The purpose of this paper is to outline a process for incorporating MMR in health outcomes research to guide stakeholders in their understanding of the essence of mixed methods inquiry. In addition, this paper will outline the benefits and challenges of MMR and describe the types of support needed for designing and conducting robust MMR measurement studies. MMR involves the application of a well-defined and pre-specified research design that articulates purposely and prospectively, qualitative and quantitative components to generate an integrated set of evidence addressing a single research question.

Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analysing and integrating quantitative e. This approach to research is used when this integration provides a better understanding of the research problem than either of each alone. Quantitative data includes close-ended information such as that found to measure attitudes e. The analysis of this type of data consists of statistically analysing scores collected on instruments e. Qualitative data consists of open-ended information that the researcher usually gathers through interviews, focus groups and observations.

Handbuch Methoden der Politikwissenschaft pp Cite as. This chapter focuses on mixed-method designs, an increasingly popular approach to designing research in the social sciences that is used to combine the respective advantages of qualitative and quantitative analytical procedures and to strengthen the empirical analysis. After the introduction, two general principles of mixed designs are discussed, the principle of triangulation and the principle of integration. The former involves the concomitant application of different methods in order to cross-validate their findings. The latter entails the sequential combination of different methods to produce a unified causal inference, whereby one method is used to establish the final inference, and the other one is applied to prepare, test, qualify or refine the analysis generating this inference.

 Где оно? - не отставал Беккер. - Понятия не имею.

Towards the use of mixed methods inquiry as best practice in health outcomes research

 У нас нет причин ему не верить.  - Это прозвучало как сигнал к окончанию разговора. Он отпил глоток кофе.  - А теперь прошу меня извинить. Мне нужно поработать.

Та показала ему последние строчки текста. Бринкерхофф читал, не веря своим глазам. - Какого чер… В распечатке был список последних тридцати шести файлов, введенных в ТРАНСТЕКСТ. За названием каждого файла следовали четыре цифры - код команды добро, данной программой Сквозь строй. Последний файл в списке таким кодом не сопровождался, вместо этого следовала запись: ФИЛЬТР ОТКЛЮЧЕН ВРУЧНУЮ.

Не удастся отслеживать перемещение грузов наркокартелей, крупные корпорации смогут переводить деньги, не оставляя никакого следа и держа Налоговое управление в полном неведении, террористы будут в полной тайне готовить свои акции. Результатом будет полнейший хаос. - А Фонд электронных границ будет праздновать победу, - побледнела Сьюзан. - Фонд понятия не имеет о том, чем мы тут занимаемся, - презрительно бросил Стратмор.  - Если бы они знали, сколько террористических нападений мы предотвратили благодаря тому, что можем взламывать шифры, они запели бы по-другому.

About the Author

Люди на подиуме перешептывались. - Уран и плутоний! - воскликнул Джабба, и в его голосе впервые послышались нотки надежды.  - Нам нужно установить разницу между этими элементами.  - Он повернулся к бригаде своих помощников.  - Кто знает, какая разница между этими элементами. На лицах тех застыло недоумение.

Я поняла так, что весь смысл в том, чтобы его уничтожить. - Верно. Но я хочу иметь копию. Я хочу открыть этот проклятый файл и ознакомиться с созданной Танкадо программой. Сьюзан была столь же любопытна, как и ее шеф, но чутье подсказывало ей, что расшифровка алгоритма Цифровой крепости неразумна, какой бы интерес это ни представляло. В данный момент эта чертова программа надежно зашифрована и абсолютно безопасна.

Вскрикнув, она оторвала взгляд от неестественно выгнутой руки и посмотрела ему в лицо. То, что она увидела, казалось неправдоподобным. Половина лица Хейла была залита кровью, на ковре расплылось темное пятно. Сьюзан отпрянула. О Боже. Значит, она слышала звук выстрела Хейла, а не коммандера.

 Отпусти меня! - крикнула она, и ее голос эхом разнесся под куполом шифровалки. Мозг Хейла лихорадочно работал. Звонок коммандера явился для него полным сюрпризом. Стратмор решился на. Он жертвует всеми планами, связанными с Цифровой крепостью.

Снова и снова тянется его рука, поблескивает кольцо, деформированные пальцы тычутся в лица склонившихся над ним незнакомцев. Он что-то им говорит. Но что. Дэвид на экране застыл в глубокой задумчивости. - Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.

The Use of Mixed Methods in Research

Она была слишком возбуждена, чтобы ответить. Испания.

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Quantitative approaches to research include hard numbers and provable results, such as experiments and surveys.

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