Human Development And Education Havighurst PdfBy Asis V. In and pdf 09.04.2021 at 01:08 5 min read
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A developmental task is one that arises predictably and consistently at or about a certain period in the life of the individual Havighurst, ,
- Robert J. Havighurst
- Human Development
- Psychometric properties of the Developmental Tasks Questionnaire for Seniors
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Robert J. Havighurst
The study describes the development of the Developmental Tasks Questionnaire for Seniors DTQ-S , intended for assessing the level of developmental tasks attainment in old age, and evaluates its psychometric properties. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the model had a satisfactory fit. Preliminary results suggest that the DTQ-S has adequate convergent and divergent validity. The DTQ-S can be a useful tool for understanding the psychological functioning of seniors for content related to adapting to old age.
Similarly, studies are needed to act as a basis for the creation of social policy and prevention programs in the areas of health, social welfare and education for the elderly Celik et al. As each stage of life has its own specific characteristics, it seems reasonable to examine the developmental context when analyzing the lifestyles of people at a given stage Williams Research indicates that only by considering the nature of development can a complete picture be provided of the life satisfaction, health and psychosocial functioning of people at different stages of adulthood Ang and Jiaqing Two classical, general developmental theories authored by Robert Havighurst and Eric Erikson examine the specific nature of each stage of human development.
They posit a trajectory of development that spans infancy to old age and emphasizes the key elements of functioning in each particular life period. Developmental tasks can be regarded as the challenges confronting people of a certain age, and these act as important determinants of the course of normal development and its effects. Such developmental tasks arise in response to changes in the biological condition of the body related to age, cultural traditions, and individual aspirations.
On the other hand, in his theory of crises and psychosocial development throughout a lifetime, Eric Erikson , , highlights the need for a space on the continuum of integrity-despair during the period of late adulthood. It is possible to overcome the fear associated with transience and death by adopting a commitment to integrity, accompanied by acceptance.
The theoretical assumptions of these two classic authors are not contradictory but complementary, proposing a useful framework for human development. A common feature shared by the two approaches is the periodization of the development occurring throughout human life and understanding the consequences of applying to the challenges of each stage.
There is also a mutual connection between the attainment of developmental tasks in a given period of life and experiencing developmental crises. Psychosocial theory, based largely on the ideas of Erikson and Havighurst, accounts for systematic change occurring over the lifespan Newman and Newman In particular, many recent theoretical and empirical studies emphasize the current relevance and practical application of developmental tasks in the later period of life Schroots ; Wadensten ; Wold Newman and Newman identify developmental tasks as areas of learning for most people in modern society.
A similar approach is taken by Hutteman et al. The tasks were grouped into the domains of romantic relationships, family, job, adult social life, and physical change. Some of these developmental tasks might be more universal than others and unaffected by cultural changes McCormick et al. Many studies indicate that living in accordance with the challenges posed by age seems to be of particular value in late life period Dezutter et al.
Bearing in mind the specificity of functioning in late life, the nature of current demographic changes and the increasing number of studies of the various aspects of psychosocial functioning of seniors, there is a growing need for measurement tools which are specifically designed for this age group. Many authors underline the need to develop various psychometric measures that consider the specificity of the late adulthood period Lopez et al. However, few existing tools can be used to examine developmental aspects of late adulthood.
Although the topic of developmental tasks attainment appears relatively frequently in research, most studies tend to examine those associated with children and adolescents cf. Borca et al. Salmela-Aro et al. Only one qualitative assessment of developmental task attainment has been drawn up based on the Havighurst model Freitas et al. There is still a need for measurement tools which consider the most important issues of the implementation of tasks appropriate for late adulthood.
As psychosocial theories can create approaches for use in clinical practice, the theoretical foundation for the diagnosis and support of older people in their ageing process represents an important consideration Wadensten It is therefore desirable to integrate the key elements of the abovementioned concepts into a single empirical, modern application for use as a psychometric measurement tool.
The study objective was to establish the psychometric properties of a measure of developmental tasks attainment in late adulthood. The evaluation employed explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses, convergent and divergent validity; its relevance was based on associations with demographic characteristics and similar constructs theoretically linked to developmental task attainment and absolute stability and normalization.
Data were collected between November and April All participants were recruited directly in person. Among respondents recruited from nursing homes and sometimes private homes, the studies were conducted individually. The study was anonymous and voluntary. The research was conducted in the region of central Poland. Purposive sampling was used. In nursing homes, people with dementia were excluded from the study.
In this group, a psychologist employed in the institution recruited respondents for the study. In every case, research team member checked the understanding of instruction and examples of items to make sure that the person understands the test. For some respondents who may have had difficulty reading the questionnaire or who were at an advanced age, a research team member provided individual support in completing tests, by giving additional explanations or reading questions.
In accordance with Isaksson et al. In total, respondents needed assistance in completing the questionnaire, especially residents of social welfare home.
All questionnaires were completed in hard copy. The group included women In terms of place of residence, The majority of respondents had a secondary education In addition, Seniors from various groups with different lifestyles were examined to represent different types of sociodemographic structure. The questionnaire was developed based on the general psychometric principles of scales construction Dyer ; Rattray and Jones Questionnaire design and development must be supported by a logical and structured approach.
This process incorporates preplanned methods to establish reliability and validity. The first stage includes purpose - the rationale for the questionnaire identified from the literature.
Then identifying research questions and establishing scale and response format takes place. Items are generated from experts, literature review and an underlying theoretical structure. The next stage is pilot work and amendments based on item analysis, explanatory factor analysis and reliability establishing. Then the convergent and divergent validity and confirmation on an independent data set is determined. The process completes the revision of measure. The Developmental Tasks Questionnaire for Seniors DTQ-S was formulated on the basis of the developmental task theory of Havighust Havighurst ; Havighurst and the psychosocial development theory of Erikson , , Contemporary approaches to developmental tasks have also been taken into account Hutteman et al.
A pool of 40 statements was created by an author, and their face and content validity were evaluated by eight competent judges psychologists with research experience in the field of Developmental Psychology. Each statement was assessed according to theoretical and linguistic accuracy.
Repetitive, vague and ambiguous items were removed, as well as those that were not specific for the period of late adulthood. Finally, 28 statements were chosen. The selected items reflected the general nature of the developmental tasks associated with late adulthood according to the above-mentioned theoretical assumptions. The questionnaire was designed as a self-reporting scale. The subject performs the assessment on a five-point scale: 1 - definitely not 2 - rather not, 3 - difficult to assess, 4 - yes, 5 - definitely yes.
The discriminatory power of the questionnaire positions was analyzed to eliminate the statements demonstrating the weakest correlation with the general result. The item-total correlation was assumed to be over. During this stage, 10 questions were removed. Then the data met the requirements necessary to perform the factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis principal component analysis by Varimax orthogonal rotation was conducted to establish the structure of the questionnaire.
Items that were not specific to any factor were removed, as well as those which were strongly correlated with two or more factors. The criteria for item exclusion comprised a loading below.
The final version of the questionnaire included 15 statements. Each of the derived factors included five questions Table 1. I feel fulfilled in my life. Factor 2, named Adaptation , refers to adaptive behavior, i. I adapt my behavior and decisions to my state of health. I have come to terms with the inevitability of death. In order to verify the predicted factor structure of the questionnaire, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with IBM AMOS software.
This analysis was carried out on the next tested group, formed from elderly people aged 60— men The participants were recruited from the University of the Third Age Most of the respondents were married The analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling according to the maximum likelihood method. The procedure and evaluation criteria for model fit recommended by Hu and Bentler were adopted.
The intended structure incorporated the three intercorrelated theoretical constructs, i. The analysis revealed that the chosen theoretical construct had a significant influence on the variability of the scores for specific items Table 2.
Further analysis indicated correlations between certain dimensions Table 3. The analysis found the three-factor model to be very well fitted to the data, and the test measurements were a strong and accurate expression of latent variables.
Absolute stability was determined by the test-retest method with an interval of a month in a group of 35 attendants of the University of the Third Age included in the total sample. The score was found to be. The convergent validity of the tool was determined by correlating the results with those of other questionnaires for similar behaviors and features, as well as with personal resources known to influence the efficient implementation of developmental tasks.
In order to determine the divergent validity, its correlation with the risk of depression was calculated. All tools have Polish adaptations and satisfactory psychometric properties. The results are included in Table 4.
Early adulthood can be a very busy time of life. Havighurst describes some of the developmental tasks of young adults. These include:. To what extent do you think these have changed in the last several years? How might these tasks be different across cultures? American Society of Reproductive Medicine : quick facs about infertility. Benokraitis, N.
Robert James Havighurst June 5, — January 31, was a chemist and physicist , educator, and expert on human development and aging. Havighurst worked and published well into his 80s. He died of Alzheimer's disease in January in Richmond, Indiana at the age of Havighurst was born in June in De Pere, Wisconsin. He attended public schools in Wisconsin and Illinois. He obtained a B. He received an Honorary Degree Sc.
Havighurst, Robert J. (Robert James), Human development and education. New York, Longmans, Green, (OCoLC)
Psychometric properties of the Developmental Tasks Questionnaire for Seniors
Although many theorists are responsible for contributing to the Developmental Tasks Theory, it was Robert Havighurst who elaborated on this development theory in the most systematic and extensive manner. A person moves from one stage to the next by means of successful resolution of problems or performance of certain developmental tasks. These tasks are typically encountered by most people in the culture where that person belongs. According to the Havighurst developmental tasks theory, when people successfully accomplish the developmental tasks at a stage, they feel pride and satisfaction.
Robert Havighurst emphasized that learning is basic and that it continues throughout life span. Growth and Development occurs in six stages. Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Early Childhood: 1. Learning to walk. Learning to take solid foods 3.
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