Food Irradiation Research And Technology Pdf

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food irradiation research and technology pdf

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The RS is currently being used in 2 different industries which are food irradiation research and insect population control. The RS and RS V are currently being used in 2 different industries which are food irradiation research and insect population control. In Europe, as in many countries of the world, the irradiation of food is an acceptable method of food preservation.

For more information about food irradiation, call the Meat and Poultry Hotline. In the Washington DC. This hour long video tape is a review of the strengths and limitations of food irradiation, the regulatory environment and rationale for its use.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Ionizing radiation effects on food vitamins - A Review. Ionizing radiation has been widely used in industrial processes, especially in the sterilization of medicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, and in food processing. Similar to other techniques of food processing, irradiation can induce certain alterations that can modify both the chemical composition and the nutritional value of foods. These changes depend on the food composition, the irradiation dose and factors such as temperature and presence or absence of oxygen in the irradiating environment.

The sensitivity of vitamins to radiation is unpredictable and food vitamin losses during the irradiation are often substantial. The aim of this study was to discuss retention or loss of vitamins in several food products submitted to an irradiation process.

Key words: Irradiation, vitamins, foods. Similar to other food processing techniques, irradiation can induce certain alterations that can modify the chemical composition and nutritive values of food Wiendl, These changes depend on the factors such as irradiation dose, food composition, packaging, and processing conditions such as temperature and atmospheric oxygen saturation Wiendl, ; Crawford and Ruff, ; Kilcast, ; Giroux and Lacroix, While some vitamins such as riboflavin B2 , pyridoxine B6 and biotin are usually stable, others such as Thiamin B1 and vitamins A, C and E are relatively labile Wiendl, ; Kilcast, ; Giroux and Lacroix, Although radiation is one of the conservation techniques that cause fewer damages to food nutrients, vitamin losses resulting from the food irradiation can be substantial.

Several studies have been conducted on the effects of radiation on food vitamins between the early and the late , as a tool for food sterilization processes. In these, doses significantly exceeding 10 kGy were applied. There is an ordinary scientific interest to learn the effects of unrealistically high doses of radiation on foods Kilcast, However, not only foods are not ordinarily irradiated with doses superior to 10 kGy, but actually most foods are exposed to much smaller dose.

The use of low irradiation doses combined with other lighter treatments is a way to minimize the effects of irradiation on organoleptic changes and minimize food vitamin losses. The aim of this study was to discuss the retention or loss of vitamins in several food products submitted to an irradiation process. General considerations about irradiation of food.

Ionizing radiation has been widely used in industrial processes, specially in sterilization of medicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, and in food processing Crawford and Ruff, ; CENA, The technique is extensively used in industrialized countries and is gaining interest in developing countries Kilcast, ; IPEN, Irradiation of food consists of submitting the foods, either bulk or packaged, to a precisely controlled quantity of ionizing radiation, during a pre-established period of time and with specific purposes CENA, The process does not increase regular radioactivity of the food for ionizing radiations have an energy threshold inferior to that of nuclear reactions that could increase the radioactivity in irradiated material and foods Siqueira, ; Diehl, a.

Irradiation can only stop the growth of the microorganisms that cause food deterioration, e. To irradiate the food it is important to use the radiations that can reach the core of the irradiated food, so that not only the microorganisms and enzymes located in the surface are affected.

Of all the ionizing radiations, only gamma rays and beta particles drive interest for food conservation purposes Gava, Gamma radiations, which present high and homogeneous penetration competence in tissues, do not significantly increase the temperature of food during the processing, a rather beneficial condition Evangelista, ; Farkas, Irradiation doses depend on many conditions that involve exposure to the rays type, quantity, and radiation time and behavior of the irradiated environment absorption capacity, physical, chemical and biological modifications, and secondary reactions Evangelista, Microorganisms, enzymes, insects and vegetable sprouting have different degrees of sensitivity to radiation, and that justifies the need for dosage diversification to reach efficacy Evangelista, There are three food radiation processes comparable to thermal methods of conservation according to radiation dosage Crawford and Ruff, ; CENA, ; Evangelista, Low doses under 1 kGy - inhibits the sprouting of produce onion, potato and garlic ; retards the ripening and fungi deterioration of the fruits and vegetables strawberry, tomato , and promotes insect disinfestations in cereals and vegetables.

Radicidation pasteurization. Typical doses 1 to 10 kGy - controls the presence of pathogenic organisms, especially in fruit juices; retards the deterioration of fishes and fresh meat, and controls Salmonella in poultry products.

Radapertization industrial sterilization. High doses over 10 kGy - little used in food processing is rather important to the sterilization of health and personal hygiene products. Healthiness of irradiated food toxicological, nutritive and microbiological has been carefully evaluated and tested for over 50 years. Results of innumerous studies Farkas, ; Wang and Chao, assure that the intake of irradiated food is absolutely safe for the consumers Farkas, ; Marin-Huachaca et al.

Although irradiated foods have become reality in Brazil, it is still necessary to carefully analyze all the possible alterations of irradiated foods. This review addresses the vitamin losses and retention in processed foods submitted to irradiation.

Irradiation and nutrient stability. Ionizing radiation can safely and effectively eliminate the pathogenic bacteria from the food Crawford and Ruff, ; CENA, ; Evangelista, ; Loaharanu, ; Sommers et al. Food conservation methods have been well accepted by the consumers. However, some disadvantages are frequently associated with them, especially regarding unwanted changes in the organoleptic characteristics and nutrient loss Kilcast, It is well known that heat tretament can improve the nutritional value of foods.

Similar effects of irradiation have been occasionally reported, but they are less common and usually less pronounced than the beneficial effects of heating Diehl, Thermal treatments can cause significant deterioration in sensory properties of food.

Mild treatments, such as pasteurization can cause substantial changes in the flavor of products such as milk. Slow freezing can alter texture of the vegetables, such as strawberries. Modern processing techniques such as the use of modified atmosphere cause minor changes in the sensory quality of the products, but represent a higher cost and do not assure long shelf life Kilcast, Food irradiation processes have been widely studied and are as well known as any other food processing method, such as dehydration and freezing Crawford and Ruff, Nutritional value of the foods submitted to various processing techniques, especially food irradiation, has been questioned by both the activists and consumers Crawford and Ruff, ; Kilcast, One of the main obstacles for the development of this technique in many countries is the mistaken ideas consumers have concerning excessive nutrient denaturation, along with the myth of food becoming radioactive and generation of toxic compounds Kilcast, However, research results back to the 's have already shown the absence of radioactivity inducement in the food treated by ionizing radiations Wiendhl, The main advantages of irradiation are the small alterations in food components Kilcast, Studies have shown that the macronutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and fat are quite stable to the doses up to 10 kGy.

Micronutrients, especially vitamins, can be susceptible to any food treatment method Crawford and Ruff, ; WHO, Water soluble vitamins are sensitive to any processing method, although fat soluble vitamins are particularly destroyed by the irradiation, and tocopherol are more sensitive to pasteurization doses Diehl, a; Fox et al. According to Kilcast , the different sensitivity levels of food vitamins to processing are shown in Table 2.

A has been reporter that folate contents of vegetable remain stable under irradiation processing, that is, little is lost because of the ionizing energy treatment. Conservation of the potato Solanum tuberosum is very important because similar to rice, wheat and corn, it is one of the most consumed base foods worldwide.

However, the main inconvenience in potato storage, same as for onion and garlic, is sprouting, which causes substantial product damage, and consequently sizable economical loss Evangelista, ; Moy and Wong, ; Janave and Thomas, ; Rios and Penteado, Alterations in vitamin C contents in potatoes can be proportional to the irradiation dosage.

The biggest vitamin C losses are registered during stockpiling; after four to nine months of storage, the ascorbic acid contents of an irradiated potato equals control potatos Evangelista, However, after six months storage irradiated potatoes presented higher concentrations of vitamin C in comparison to control Diehl, a. The effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato was also studied. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on some parameters, such as vitamin C content.

With a higher dose, the lesser the vitamin C content was observed Wang and Chao, However, doses used to inhibit the sprouting and extend storage period of garlic was much lower than those that caused vitamin loss to the product Pellegrini et al. Regarding vitamin C, no alterations were registered in the garlic and onions receiving irradiation doses enough for sprouting inhibition Kilcast, Garlic Allium cepa L.

Several chemical parameters were investigated in red variety garlic, irradiated to inhibit sprouting, with doses of 30 Gy and kept under warehouse conditions. The studies were conducted between and days post harvest critical marketing periods when this variety was not normally available for raw consumption. During the storage, the irradiated garlic showed a significant increase in ascorbic acid content but no change in dry matter content compared with non-irradiated garlic.

Compared with non-irradiated garlic, at days' storage, the irradiated garlic had a higher index of flavour, measured as enzymatic pyruvate, a higher acidity and a lower content of water-soluble carbohydrates. From these observations, the irradiated garlic should be suitable for prolonged storage with the object of marketing it during the critical periods Curzio et al. Another study evaluated the effects of different radiation doses applied in both dormant and post-dormant onions Allium sativa L.

Elevated irradiation dosages 0. In addition, studies with dehydrated garlic and onions, seeking product sanitation, showed that doses between kGy were enough to reduce the micro flora to desirable levels, and making these products viable to use in the hospitals and in immuno-impaired people diets Pezzutti et al.

It is advisable to quarantine the fresh foods to prevent the migration of insects and other organisms to new areas. However, these treatments have some disadvantages. Fumigation may cause environmental concern and public health problems; both high and low temperatures treatments require more than 12 days to be effective Hallman, Food irradiation for the insect and microorganisms decontamination has been studied for more than 40 years. Doses lower than 1. Studies with Gala and Fuji apples irradiated with quarantining dosages showed that 0.

These are reports describing gradual loss of ascorbic acid in apples Pyrus malus L. Destruction of vitamin C is a consequence of alteration of fruits metabolic oxidation pathways by radiation, which can convert vitamin C into dehydro-ascorbic acid, which can still be metabolized as vitamin C Snauwart, Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during the storage and marketing.

Gamma irradiation treatment was studied to determine its effect on the quality of papaya and mango irradiated at 0. The content of vitamin C were not significantly affected by the irradiation Lacroix et al. Star fruit, mango, papaya, rambutan, and lichia were irradiated with 0.

Only star fruit presented significant vitamin C loss Moy and Wong, Capsicums green and red , cucumbers, custard apples, lemons, lychees, mandarins, mangoes, nectarines, papayas, peaches, persimmons, and zucchinis were irradiated at 0, 75, or Gy.

However, storage effects were higher than irradiation effects Mitcheell et al, Strawberries Shasta variety, Fragaria sp.

Similar observations were reported by Lopez et al. A study using higher radiation doses 3. However, 1.

Fruits irradiated with 2. A study with Selekta and Parafit varieties irradiated with 2 kGy doses, showed non-significant differences in riboflavin, thiamin and niacin contents, evaluated after 24 h. In strawberry, vitamin C content was significantly affected by original content or the variety rather than treatments such as irradiation, heating or microwave.

Effect of Irradiation on Quality of Vacuum-Packed Spicy Beef Chops

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation , such as from gamma rays, x-rays, or electron beams, without direct contact to the food product. Some bonds rupture and produce free radicals which are highly reactive and unstable. They instantaneously rejoin with neighboring compounds and the results are called radiolytic compounds. Food irradiation is permitted in over 60 countries, and about , metric tons of food are processed annually worldwide. In Austria, Germany, and many other countries of the European Union only dried herbs, spices, and seasonings can be processed with irradiation and only at a specific dose, while in Brazil all foods are allowed at any dose. Irradiation is used to reduce or eliminate pests and the risk of food-borne illnesses as well as prevent or slow spoilage and plant maturation or sprouting.

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Though accurate at last review, it is no longer being updated. The page may contain broken links or outdated information. Josephson, Edward S. Taub, Irwin A. Last reviewed:

PDF | Irradiation is used to control regulatory insects in exported fresh commodities. Insects vary in their tolerance to ionizing radiation. Generic | Find, read and.

Food Irradiation

Irradiation does not make foods radioactive, compromise nutritional quality, or noticeably change the taste, texture, or appearance of food. In fact, any changes made by irradiation are so minimal that it is not easy to tell if a food has been irradiated. Food irradiation the application of ionizing radiation to food is a technology that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects.

To develop an alternative pasteurization process for the spicy beef jerky SBJ , it was treated with irradiation doses of 0, 0. The results showed that lightness, drip loss, and off-odor of SBJ increased, while the hardness, chewiness, gumminess, color preference, and taste of SBJ decreased with the increase in irradiation dose. The possible reason for these quality changes might be due to the free radicals produced by irradiation. This speculation is supported by the decrease of the content of capsanthin and the increase of the content of TBARS of SBJ with the increase in irradiation dose.

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Вылезай скорее! - послышался женский голос. Мидж все же его разыскала. Он застонал. - Джабба. Скорее вылезай. Он неохотно выполз из-под компьютера.

Он прекрасно знал, что левой рукой стрелял так же плохо, как и правой, к тому же правая рука была ему нужна, чтобы поддерживать равновесие. Грохнуться с этой лестницы означало до конца дней остаться калекой, а его представления о жизни на пенсии никак не увязывались с инвалидным креслом. Сьюзан, ослепленная темнотой шифровалки, спускалась, не отрывая руки от плеча Стратмора. Даже в полуметре от шефа она не видела очертаний его фигуры. Всякий раз, ступая на очередную ступеньку, она носком туфли первым делом старалась нащупать ее край. К ней снова вернулись страхи, связанные с новой попыткой найти ключ Хейла в Третьем узле.

Слава Богу, разрешено хоть. Стратмор требовал запретить всяческий доступ, но Фонтейн настоял на. - В шифровалке нет камер слежения? - удивился Бринкерхофф. - А что, - спросила она, не отрываясь от монитора, - нам с Кармен нужно укромное местечко. Бринкерхофф выдавил из себя нечто невразумительное. Мидж нажала несколько клавиш.

Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так. - Что значит - пробовал.

 Ты пробрался в мой кабинет. - Нет. Я сделал это, не выходя из Третьего узла.

У входа стоял криптограф Грег Хейл. Это был высокий мужчина крепкого сложения с густыми светлыми волосами и глубокой ямкой на подбородке. Он отличался громким голосом и безвкусно-крикливой манерой одеваться.

Туда и обратно, - повторил он.  - Туда и обратно. Если бы он тогда знал… ГЛАВА 9 Техник систем безопасности Фил Чатрукьян собирался заглянуть в шифровалку на минуту-другую - только для того, чтобы взять забытые накануне бумаги. Но вышло. Пройдя помещение шифровалки и зайдя в лабораторию систем безопасности, он сразу почувствовал что-то неладное.

Сьюзан закрыла глаза, но ее снова вывел из забытья голос Дэвида. Беги, Сьюзан. Открой дверцу.

 - Да будет. На вид вы человек состоятельный. Дайте немножко денег, чтобы я могла вернуться домой. Я вам все верну.

И тогда ты решишь, уходить тебе или. Повисла долгая тишина. Сьюзан словно во сне подошла и села с ним. - Сьюзан, - начал он, - я не был с тобой вполне откровенен.


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Cleland Marshall R. Summary · PDF · References · Request permissions · xml. CHAPTER 3.

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Marshall R. Cleland Ph.D. Summary · PDF · References · Request permissions · xml. CHAPTER 3.

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