Douglas Mcgregor Theory X And Theory Y PdfBy Fitz B. In and pdf 11.04.2021 at 12:22 5 min read
File Name: douglas mcgregor theory x and theory y .zip
- Motivation - McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y)
- McGregor's XY Theory of Management
- The Human Side of Douglas McGregor
In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y.
Theory X - authoritarian, repressive style. Tight control, no development. Produces limited, depressed culture. Management staff management staff Theory Y.
Motivation - McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y)
Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:. Working for an X theory boss isn't easy - some extreme X-Theory managers make extremely unpleasant managers, but there are ways of managing these people upwards.
During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on […]. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory X does work well in some situations, although, as McGregor himself pointed out, there are also some situations where it does not work effectively.
McGregor's XY Theory of Management
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment or culture where workers can show and develop their creativity.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.
The Human Side of Douglas McGregor
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results.
Она остановилась и снова начала вглядываться в глубь помещения Третьего узла. В полумраке ей удалось различить руку Хейла.
Douglas Mcgregor Theory X Theory Y
Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать. Он решительно поднял трубку, снова набрал номер и прислонился к стене.
- Средняя цена определяется как дробь - общая стоимость, деленная на число расшифровок. - Конечно. - Бринкерхофф рассеянно кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на лиф ее платья. - Когда знаменатель равняется нулю, - объясняла Мидж, - результат уходит в бесконечность. Компьютеры терпеть не могут бесконечности, поэтому выдают девятки. - Она показала ему другую колонку.
Ассоциативный ряд? - по-прежнему недоумевал Дэвид. - Стандартная для АНБ процедура. Мне нужно знать, с кем я имею. - Глаза ее смотрели сурово. - Доктор.
Я ничем не обязан мистеру Танкадо. Он зря мне доверился. Ключ стоит в сотни раз больше того, что он платит мне за его хранение. - Извините, но ваш ключ сам по себе ничего не стоит. Как только Танкадо узнает о том, что вы сделали, он опубликует свою копию, и рынок рухнет.
Вы хотите дать взятку представителю закона? - зарычал. - Нет, конечно.