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- Virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the absence of Th1-associated transcription factors
- Fate and Function of CD4+Th Cell Subsets in Autoimmune Diseases
- T Helper Cell Differentiation, Heterogeneity, and Plasticity
- CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults.
Virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the absence of Th1-associated transcription factors
Rheumatoid arthritis RA is the most common autoimmune disorder. Eight serum cytokines were analyzed using cytometric bead array. However, Th1 cells only reached significant difference at advanced stage, but Th17 at all stages, suggesting more important roles in Th17 cells. For Th2 and Treg cells, there was a different function pattern in RA progression. Although with the increase of DAS28 score, Th2 cell experienced some degree of decrease in RA patients, no significant difference was observed.
Cancer immunotherapy is one the most effective approaches for treating patients with tumors, as it bolsters the generation and persistence of memory T cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms underlying how infused Th17 and Tc17 cells regress established malignancies in clinically relevant mouse models of cancer. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. N Engl J Med — Sci Transl Med ra Blood —
Fate and Function of CD4+Th Cell Subsets in Autoimmune Diseases
DOI: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. FullText PDF. The human immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which both provide protective immunity to microbial infection. There are two types of immune system in human for protection against pathogens. One of the immune systems is called the innate immune system. The innate immune system constitutes the first line of host defense during infection and, therefore, plays a crucial role in the early recognition and subsequent triggering of a pro-inflammatory response to the invading pathogens .
Cytolytic CD4 T cells CD4 CTL have been identified in vivo in response to viral infections; however, the factors necessary for driving the cytolytic phenotype have not been fully elucidated. Our previously published work suggests IL-2 may be the master regulator of perforin-mediated cytotoxicity in CD4 effectors. Increasing concentrations of IL-2 were necessary to drive perforin Prf expression and maximal cytotoxicity. In addition, GrB expression, as measured by mean fluorescent intensity, was decreased in CD25 deficient cells; however, the frequency of CD4 cells expressing GrB was unchanged. Thus, inflammatory signals induced by viral infection may overcome the need for strong IL-2 signals in driving cytotoxicity in CD4 cells.
Summary of the 4 CD4 T helper cell fates: their functions, their unique products, their characteristic transcription factors, and cytokines critical for.
T Helper Cell Differentiation, Heterogeneity, and Plasticity
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Jinfang Zhu, William E. Paul; CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults. Blood ; 5 : — In , Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions. Our understanding of the importance of the distinct differentiated forms of CD4 T cells and of the mechanisms through which they achieve their differentiated state has greatly expanded over the past 2 decades.
CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults.
By producing unique sets of cytokines, effector Th subsets play critical roles in orchestrating immune responses to a variety of infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including autoimmunity, allergy, and asthma. Several lineage-specific master transcription factors dictate Th cell fates and functions. Although these master regulators cross-regulate each other, their expression can be dynamic. Sometimes, they are even coexpressed, resulting in massive Th-cell heterogeneity and plasticity.
Dengue virus DENV has spread through most tropical and subtropical areas of the world and represents a serious public health problem. The control of DENV infection has not yet been fully successful due to lack of effective therapeutics or vaccines. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the immune responses against DENV infection may reveal new strategies for eliciting and improving antiviral immunity. T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. Following activation, CD8 T cells can migrate to sites of infection and kill infected cells, whereas CD4 T cells contribute to the elimination of pathogens by trafficking to infected tissues and providing help to innate immune responses, B cells, as well as CD8 T cells. However, it is now evident that CD4 T cells can also perform cytotoxic functions and induce the apoptosis of target cells. Importantly, accumulating studies demonstrate that cytotoxic CD4 T cells develop following DENV infections and may play a crucial role in protecting the host from severe dengue disease.
- Он просто расстроен. Но он получит то, что ему причитается. - Она встряхнула волосами и подмигнула. - Может быть, все-таки скажете что-нибудь. Что помогло бы мне? - сказал Беккер.
In , Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern.
У меня нет денег на новый билет. - Где твои родители? - спросил Беккер. - В Штатах. - А связаться с ними пробовала.
Раздался приглушенный звук выстрела. Мимо. Он резко свернул влево и запетлял по дороге в надежде сбить преследователя и выиграть время.
Сьюзан не понимала, к чему клонит Стратмор. - В марте я испробовала алгоритм с сегментированным ключом в миллион бит. Ошибка в функции цикличности, сотовая автоматика и прочее.
Дверь повернулась до положения полного открытия. Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем.