Chapter 9 Inequalities Of Race And Ethnicity PdfBy Auxiliadora U. In and pdf 12.04.2021 at 02:10 5 min read
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- 2. Views of racial inequality
- Race and Ethnicity: Inequalities and Identities
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Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Inequality hurts.
2. Views of racial inequality
A life course approach underpins the recommendations made in the Marmot Review on reducing health inequalities in England. Marmot review, ACEs are stressful experiences occurring during childhood that directly harm a child e. Ethnicity is a fluid concept and takes on different meanings in different contexts. The definition of ethnicity is influenced by both historical value systems and the current social and political context Bradby, Each of these dimensions may have implications for health.
A major limitation of the concept of ethnicity in practice is that research specific definitions are often not clearly stated. There are a number of concerns about the reliability and validity of measurements of ethnicity. Researcher-assigned ethnic identities may not match respondent self-defined identities, threatening validity. Even when ethnicity is self-identified, the same person may use different ethnic identities in different situations at different times, compromising reliability.
Fixed response categories such as those found in the UK Census and many other quantitative surveys have particular validity concerns.
Bradby notes that the lack of theoretical coherence in defining fixed-response categories is a major problem in ethnicity related research. While fixed response categories facilitate comparisons over time, and potentially across surveys, mutually exclusive groups cannot reflect mixed ethnic identities.
Ellison notes that the validity and reliability of ethnicity data depend on measurement techniques as well as the population.
Broad categories, objective techniques and group homogeneity can improve validity and reliability of ethnicity measurement. These limitations of measurement, and the changing multidimensional nature of ethnicity, mean that quantitative researchers may never have a totally unbiased ethnicity variable.
However, taking account of the methodological limitations and social context, these variables can be useful as a proxy for the complex concept of ethnicity. Skip to main content. Create new account Request new password.
You are here 4c - Equality, Equity and Policy. Inequalities in health e. The distribution of health is determined by a wide variety of individual, community, and national factors See Figure 1.
There is a growing body of evidence documenting inequalities in both the distribution of health i. Access to health care is a supply side issue indicating the level of service which the health care system offers the individual. Inequalities in the distribution of health. Researchers have documented inequalities in the distribution of health by social class, gender, and ethnicity.
Inequalities in health have been measured using many different outcomes including infant deaths, mortality rates, morbidity, disability, and life expectancy. Social class including income, wealth and education. Research on socio-economic inequalities in health in the UK has a long history.
For over years, inequality in health outcomes have been a concern since the early Medical Officer of Health reports Wellcome Trust. Health outcomes generally worsened with greater socioeconomic disadvantage. In the early part of the 20th century the British government introduced questions on occupation in the decennial census. This allowed researchers to examine health outcomes by social class. For a description of the current scheme see:. Children in social class V families were twice as likely to die as those in social class I.
Social class inequalities in the UK persist at every age and for all the major diseases. An analysis of health outcomes in England for the Global Burden of Disease study showed that males living in the most deprived region of England in had a life expectancy 8.
Life expectancy for women living in the most deprived region in was 6. Newton JN et al. The inverse relationship between deprivation and health outcomes though well established as shown above Table 2 and recently in Newton JN et al is also slightly more complex as shown below.
Tables 2b, 3b and 4b. The table of Life Expectancy LE and Healthy Life Expectancy HLE at birth for both genders and by national deciles of area deprivation in England over a 3 year period shows there is a difference in life expectancy by gender and level of deprivation throughout. Of importance was the largest differences in healthy life expectancy between neighbouring deciles were found between the most deprived area groupings.
Above add to the debate of the complex relationship between health outcomes, gender and social class. Previous studies have shown that causes of death differ in their relationship to social class. They found in their European study using data from a decade a clear mortality gradient among employees for the majority of causes; from low relative risk of death among higher managerial and professional occupations to relatively high risks for the unskilled working class.
Efforts have been made to reduce health inequalities through policies and interventions dating back to the Black Report. Although notable improvements across society in indicators such as life expectancy ONS, have occurred, a large, persistent health gap remains. The Health and Social Care Act introduced legal duties on health organisations to have regard to the need to reduce health inequalities.
There are four major models used to explain social class inequalities in health Bartley and Blane, ; Bartley, The Black Report The Black Report, published in confirmed social class health inequalities in overall mortality and for most causes of death and showed that health inequalities were widening.
The report set out four possible mechanisms to explain widening socio-economic health inequalities:. Artefact: Population information came from the decennial census while death and cause of death information came from death certificates. An individual may have been described in different ways in the two data sources leading to numerator-denominator bias. The report also noted widening inequalities may be explained by the shrinking of social class V.
With fewer people who were completely unskilled, the average health of social class V moved further from social class I. Furthermore, the report noted that the meaning of social class may have changed over time as some jobs disappear and others emerge. Social selection: Health determines social position. Behaviour : individuals in the lower social classes indulge in comparatively more health damaging behaviour see behavioural model above. It collects detailed information on risk factors such as weight, cholesterol, smoking, and blood pressure.
The study found inequalities in health and mortality between employment grades and found that risk factors could only explain one-third of the observed variation in health by employment grade. The Acheson Report The Acheson Report published in found that mortality had decreased in the last 50 years but that inequalities in health remained, and in some instances health inequalities had widened. The report recommended:.
The Marmot Review The Marmot Review was commissioned in to provide evidence-based recommendations for a strategy to reduce health inequalities in England. The review found that:. Gender Much research has shown that in industrialised countries women live longer than men tables 3 and 3B but appear to experience more ill health.
While men have higher mortality from the most common single causes of death ischemic heart disease and lung cancer , more women than men suffer from somatic complaints such as tiredness, headache, muscular aches and pains. However, some researchers have raised questions about the validity of studies that show higher illness rates in women, as many different health outcome variables have been used and not all show gender differences.
There is more consistency in studies that examine minor psychological illness, anxiety, sickness absence from work, functional limitation, and depression Bartley, Table 3: Selected developed countries by order of female to male difference in years of life expectancy at birth in and In the UK, mortality is greater in males than in females at all ages.
In youth and early adulthood, males are more likely to die from motor vehicle accidents, other injury such as fire and flames, accidental drowning and submersion , and suicide, contributing to higher mortality rates among young men and boys.
Across the whole of adult life, mortality rates are higher for men than women for all the major causes of death including cancers and cardiovascular disease. However, women have much higher rates of disability than men, especially at older ages. Women have more morbidity from poor mental health, particularly those related to anxiety and depressive disorder Acheson, WHO suggests that gender differences in health are a result of both 1 biology and 2 social factors distinct roles and behaviours of a men and women a given culture, dictated by that cultures gender norms and values.
More recently, the ONS published focused on inequality in Healthy life expectancy HLE at birth by deciles of area deprivation in England and for both genders.
This data shows that the effects of inequality have different magnitudes for males compared to females Table 3b. Inequality has a greater effect on life expectency in men than in women, but for healthy life expectancy, inequality creates a greater difference in women than in men. Females in the most deprived areas have a life expectancy 6. They also expect to spend The SII for males and females was computed using Stata software. This software automatically weights the population of each decile used in the regression analysis which had been manually weighted by ONS, causing a slight increase in the SII to the second decimal place.
Please see table 4b. Compared with —03, male mortality rates in —10 were lower in most socio-economic classes across the English regions and Wales; only the Intermediate class in the East region remained constant. In females, mortality decreased between —03 and —10 in all classes in only London and the South West. Increases in mortality were observed in the Intermediate; Lower Supervisory and Technical; and the Semi-routine classes in several regions.
The absolute inequality between the most and least advantaged men generally decreased across most English regions between and For women, the inequality decreased in some regions but showed an increase in others. They found considerable variations in the strength of the association between class and cause of death.
For example, with diseases such as malignant melanoma, breast cancer and transport accidents among women, no clear class differences were found. At the other extreme, mental and behavioural disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and diseases of the respiratory system all show steep slopes for both men and women.
Ethnicity and Culture There is a growing body of evidence documenting ethnic inequalities in health outcomes in the UK, and internationally, despite difficulties with the conceptualisation and measurement of ethnicity as an epidemiological variable see Box 1.
Box 1: Difficulties with the conceptualisation and measurement of ethnicity in health research. However, taking account of the methodological limitations and social context, these variables can be useful as a proxy for the complex concept of ethnicity Ellison, Ethnicity is not recorded on UK death certificates, and mortality data uses country of birth as a proxy, thus failing to identify ethnic minorities born in the UK. Table 4: Standardised mortality ratios by country of origin, England and Wales, Region Within the UK, more recent analysis based on the seven-class reduced National Statistics Socio-economic Classification NS-SEC shows regional trends in estimates of mortality rates of working age men in English regions and Wales, from to RII was chosen as an inequality measure as it uses and takes into account mortality rates data of all the intervening classes, in addition to the most and least advantaged NS-SEC classes; the 'Higher Managerial and Professional' and 'Routine' class respectively.
Race and Ethnicity: Inequalities and Identities
More than four-in-ten Americans say the country still has work to do to give black people equal rights with whites. Blacks, in particular, are skeptical that black people will ever have equal rights in this country. Opinions are more mixed when it comes to what impact, if any, being Asian or Native American has. This chapter also explores what Americans see as obstacles for black people getting ahead as well as attitudes about what impact, if any, the legacy of slavery has on the current status of blacks. Opinions are more split when it comes to the impact of being Native American — about the same shares say this hurts as say it neither helps nor hurts, while a smaller share says it helps. Among whites, education and partisanship are linked to perceptions of white advantage. White Democrats and white Republicans differ widely in their perceptions of the challenges blacks face.
We can examine issues of race and ethnicity through three major sociological perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. As you read through these theories, ask yourself which one makes the most sense and why. Do we need more than one theory to explain racism, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination? In the view of functionalism, racial and ethnic inequalities must have served an important function in order to exist as long as they have. This concept, of course, is problematic. How can racism and discrimination contribute positively to society? Nash focused his argument on the way racism is functional for the dominant group, for example, suggesting that racism morally justifies a racially unequal society.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. One such comment was made by Jefferson Fish, a psychologist at St. Nevertheless, race is commonly and popularly defined in terms of biological traits—phenotypic differences in skin color, hair texture, and other physical attributes, often perceived as surface manifestations of deeper, underlying differences in intelligence, temperament, physical prowess, and sexuality.
Sociology Chapter 1 And 2 Test.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. M ost people would agree that equal opportunity to participate as a full and functioning member of society is important. Nonetheless, existing social and economic disparities among racial and ethnic groups suggest that our society has yet to achieve this goal.
A life course approach underpins the recommendations made in the Marmot Review on reducing health inequalities in England. Marmot review, ACEs are stressful experiences occurring during childhood that directly harm a child e.
Beverly Tatum argues that youth of color and Indigenous youth develop their racial and ethnic identity through socialization. In other words, their lived experiences shape how they come to understand what it means to be Black, African American, Latinx, Asian American, Native, or biracial in the United States, and to interrogate how their racial identity impacts their current and future lives. Their lived experiences are informed by their experiences at home, in their communities, and in school, but also by the messages and images sent by the media, books, curriculum, social institutions, and political leaders. This includes that whites are the preferred group. This leads some young children of color to value the beliefs, lifestyles, and images of beauty held by the white dominant group more highly than those of their own racial and ethnic group. Beverly Tatum. Beverly Tatum is a psychologist and educator whose research focuses on race in education, racial identity development in teenagers, and assimilation of black families and youth in white neighborhoods.
Back to Publication. From Chapter 9 — Business, Power and Poverty Reduction This chapter discusses the complex relationship between business, poverty and poverty reduction. Business activities both cause and alleviate poverty, and poverty generates both costs and benefits for business. These diverse relationships give rise to varied and often polarized views regarding the new roles that business actors are assuming in the social and public arenas. Are such roles effective from the perspective of inclusive development?
Typical row home facades on a residential street off Germantown Avenue in Philadelphia on November 9, The United States must reckon with the racism built into its housing system in order to ensure that all Americans have the opportunity to build wealth. This report is part of a series on structural racism in the United States.
Introductory Sociology pp Cite as. This chapter introduces the sociological analysis of racial and ethnic divisions. It explores their continued significance as bases for both social inequalities and social identities. The chapter concludes by linking discussion of race and ethnicity to consideration of other dimensions of stratification covered in detail in Chapters 6, 7 and 8.
Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени. Вернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан приступила к линейному поиску. Четвертая попытка тоже не дала результата.
Эти аргументы она слышала уже много. Гипотетическое будущее правительство служило главным аргументом Фонда электронных границ. - Стратмора надо остановить! - кричал Хейл.