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- Evaluation in organizations : a systematic approach to enhancing learning, performance, and change
- Evaluation in Organizations: A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Performance, and Change
- Evaluation In Organizations A Systematic Approach To Enhancing Learning Performance And Change
From new product launches to large-scale training initiatives, organizations need the tools to measure the effectiveness of. Hallie Preskill integrate the most current research with practical applications to provide a fully revised new edition of this. In Evaluation in Organizations, learning theory experts Darlene Russ-Eft andHallie Preskill integrate the most current research with practical applications to provide a fully revised new edition of thisessential resource for managers, human resource professionals, students, and teachers.
Evaluation in organizations : a systematic approach to enhancing learning, performance, and change
Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way e. Change management is the systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. It involves defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to handle changes in external conditions and the business environment.
Effective change management goes beyond project management and technical tasks undertaken to enact organizational changes and involves leading the "people side" of major change within an organization. The primary goal of change management is to successfully implement new processes, products and business strategies while minimizing negative outcomes.
This article discusses the management of large organizational changes that may have far-reaching impacts on the organization and its workforce, including the following topics:. This article also highlights some of the special issues and challenges in implementing certain types of major organizational change, including mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, bankruptcy, business closure, outsourcing, and changes within the HR function.
To keep pace in a constantly evolving business world, organizations often need to implement enterprisewide changes affecting their processes, products and people.
Change is a fact of life in businesses today. It can be difficult, and people often resist it. But to develop an agile workplace culture, organizations should follow a systematic approach to managing major change.
Organizational development experts have established approaches for successfully navigating through change. Organizational leaders must identify and respond quickly to market changes and unexpected challenges, but most are not in a position to create an agile culture. Yet agile leadership—from CEOs down to line-level managers—separates high-performing from lower-performing organizations.
Companies that consistently outperform competitors in profitability, market share, revenue growth and customer satisfaction reported much greater agility than lower performers. The rate of major organizational change has accelerated dramatically in this decade. As change initiatives have become more frequent and widespread, the importance of managing individuals through change has gained credence. Major changes can affect organizations across all levels.
Many corporate leaders have concluded that failing to manage employees through change can be costly: Employees who are dissatisfied with or upset by change are generally less productive. An employer that is serious about change management should develop a communication plan, a road map for change sponsors, integrated training programs and a plan for dealing with resistance. HR should be involved in major organizational changes from the beginning and can assist by influencing the following:. Business managers who want to undertake major transformation to stay competitive must work with HR staff to gain employee acceptance and support.
Having the right leadership and buy-in from the executive team is critical to unifying the organization behind a common strategic direction. Another key is making sure all managers are equipped to coach their direct reports toward commitment. One-on-one conversations help individual team members analyze how the change will affect them, determine their level of commitment and choose how they will act.
Questions managers should address with employees include:. See Changing the Change Rules at Google. Unfortunately, many managers are not adept at change management.
The lack of change management skills among managers can make change initiatives difficult to achieve. A Towers Watson Change and Communication ROI Survey found that 87 percent of employers train managers on effective change management; however, only one-quarter of those employers found the training to be effective.
HR can play a dual role in change management by initiating and leading the change and by serving as a facilitator for changes that other leaders and departments initiated.
The HR department performs a variety of functions associated with the communication, implementation and tracking of major changes. Most commonly, HR professionals assist employees by serving as a point of contact for questions and concerns and by explaining any impact on staffing. In addition, HR often coordinates meetings and communications about the change and related initiatives.
Other common HR roles and responsibilities include:. HR can also play a strategic role in change management by calculating the post-implementation return on investment by identifying key performance indicators KPIs to be measured and by tracking and communicating these results.
By championing change, HR can help the organization increase buy-in, comfort and support for change across departments, thereby increasing the success of change initiatives.
Organizations should systematically prepare for and implement major organizational change. John Kotter, a Harvard Business School professor, developed a well-known and widely adopted approach for managing organizational change. This approach, updated in Kotter's book Accelerate , involves the following eight stages: 3. These changes can stem from demographic shifts, social trends, new technology, market or competitor changes, or new government regulations.
The leaders should explain that a potential crisis or major opportunity is imminent, and they should encourage frank discussion throughout the organization. Creating a sense of urgency that the status quo is no longer acceptable is essential to gain the workforce's energetic cooperation.
Members need substantial authority based on position, expertise, credibility and leadership, as well as effective management skills and proven leadership abilities. This coalition must learn to work together based on trust and set a common goal. Many guiding coalitions build trust through offsite meetings, joint activities and conversation.
An effective vision is imaginable, desirable, feasible, focused, flexible and communicable, according to Kotter. Creating an effective vision takes time and can be a challenging process, but the end product provides a clear direction for the future. Key elements in effective communications include simplicity, use of examples, multiple forums, repetition, explanation of apparent inconsistencies and two-way communication.
The group should model the behavior expected of employees. Four categories of important obstacles are:. To maintain urgency, leaders should create conditions that support early successes and visible improvements. The key is to actively search for opportunities to score early achievements and to recognize and reward those who made these accomplishments possible.
Good short-term wins have unambiguous results, are visible to many people and are clearly related to the change effort. It is important to use the early successes as a foundation for larger challenges and to revise all systems, structures and policies that do not fit the change vision.
HR can consolidate gains by hiring, promoting and developing employees who can implement the transformation vision.
Additionally, the change process can be reinvigorated with new project themes and change agents. A large global retailer uses this model to increase the speed and impact of change initiatives while reducing the downturn of performance, thereby achieving desired outcomes quicker.
Organizations can have a clear vision for changes and a technically and structurally sound foundation for making changes, but the initiatives can still flounder due to obstacles that arise.
Employee resistance and communication breakdown are common obstacles faced during major organizational change. Successful change starts with individuals, and failure often occurs because of human nature and reluctance to change. Employees may also lack the specific behavioral traits needed to adapt easily to changing circumstances, which could decrease employee engagement and effectiveness and put organizational productivity at risk. How organizations treat workers during a change initiative determines how successful the change—and the organization—will be.
There are six states of change readiness: indifference, rejection, doubt, neutrality, experimentation and commitment. Organizations about to embark on a transformation should evaluate workforce readiness with assessment instruments and leader self-evaluations to identify the areas in which the most work is needed. Leaders should have a solid strategy for dealing with change resistance.
Some actions to build employee change readiness include:. Sometimes decisions about major organizational changes are made at the top management level and then trickle down to employees. As a result, why and how the company is changing may be unclear. According to a Robert Half Management Resources survey, poor communication commonly hinders organizational change-management efforts, with 65 percent of managers surveyed indicating that clear and frequent communication is the most important aspect when leading through change.
To avoid this problem, HR should be involved in change planning early to help motivate employees to participate.
Effective communication promotes awareness and understanding of why the changes are necessary. Employers should communicate change-related information to employees in multiple forms e. To avoid communication breakdowns, change leaders and HR professionals should be aware of five change communication methodologies—from those that provide the greatest amount of information to those that provide the least:.
Experts estimate that effective communication strategies can double employees' acceptance of change. However, often companies focus solely on tactics such as channels, messages and timing while failing to do a contextual analysis and consider the audience. Some of the specific communication pitfalls and possible remedies for them are the following:.
Executive leaders and HR professionals must be great communicators during change. They should roll out a clear, universal, consistent message to everyone in the organization at the same time, even across multiple sites and locations.
Managers should then meet both with their teams and one on one with each team member. See Say What?! Honing Communication Skills at the Top. Leaders should explain the change and why it is needed, be truthful about its benefits and challenges, listen and respond to employees' reactions and implications, and then ask for and work to achieve individuals' commitment. Employee resistance and communication breakdowns are not the only barriers that stand in the way of successful change efforts.
Other common obstacles include:. Change management experts have suggested that unsuccessful change initiatives are often characterized by the following:. Successful change management must be well-planned, well-timed and well-integrated. Other critical success factors include a structured, proactive approach that encompasses communication, a road map for the sponsors of the change, training programs that go along with the overall project and a plan for dealing with resistance.
Change leaders need to be active and visible in sponsoring the change, not only at the beginning but also throughout the process. Turning their attention to something else can send employees the wrong message—that leaders are no longer interested. Organizational change comes in many forms. It may focus on creating new systems and procedures; introducing new technologies; or adding, eliminating or rebranding products and services.
Other transformations stem from the appointment of a new leader or major staffing changes. Still other changes, such as downsizing or layoffs, bankruptcy, mergers and acquisitions, or closing a business operation, affect business units or the entire organization.
Some changes are internal to the HR function. In addition to the general framework for managing change, change leaders and HR professionals should also be aware of considerations relating to the particular type of change being made.
The subsections below highlight some of the special issues and HR challenges. A merger is generally defined as the joining of two or more organizations under one common ownership and management structure.
Evaluation in Organizations: A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Performance, and Change
Organizational development is an often-heard term and a key organizational function. In this complete guide, we will take a closer look at a concept that many have heard of but are unfamiliar with. We will dive into what organizational development is, its goals, examples of common organizational development interventions and techniques, and the OD process. By the end of this guide, you will have a good understanding of what OD is, and the techniques that can be used to improve organizational effectiveness. Table of contents What is organizational development?
Evaluation In Organizations A Systematic Approach To Enhancing Learning Performance And Change
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Request PDF | On Jan 1, , D. F. Russ-Eft and others published Evaluation in Evaluation in Organizations A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Validation issues of a performance management system for design: three case change were largely based on research in educational organizations, and the.