Probiotic And Prebiotic Foods List PdfBy Thibaut R. In and pdf 12.04.2021 at 22:25 8 min read
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- What’s the Difference Between Probiotics and Prebiotics?
- 17 Great Probiotic Foods for Better Gut Health
- The 19 Best Prebiotic Foods You Should Eat
- The Top 33 Prebiotic Foods for Your Digestive System
Are you getting enough probiotic-rich foods in your diet? Probiotics are a form of good bacteria found in your gut which are responsible for everything from nutrient absorption to immune health. Not only are probiotics are essential for digestion, but did you know there are hundreds of other health benefits of consuming probiotic-rich foods that you might not be aware of? According to a review published in the journal ISRN Nutrition , probiotics could also help people lower cholesterol, protect against allergies, aid in cancer prevention and more.
What’s the Difference Between Probiotics and Prebiotics?
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years.
They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs. Fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides are the two important groups of prebiotics with beneficial effects on human health.
Since low quantities of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides naturally exist in foods, scientists are attempting to produce prebiotics on an industrial scale. Considering the health benefits of prebiotics and their safety, as well as their production and storage advantages compared to probiotics, they seem to be fascinating candidates for promoting human health condition as a replacement or in association with probiotics.
This review discusses different aspects of prebiotics, including their crucial role in human well-being. Various types of microorganisms, known as gut microbiota, are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract.
It has been reported that there are 10 10 —10 12 live microorganisms per gram in the human colon [ 1 ]. The resident microbial groups in the stomach, small, and large intestine are crucial for human health.
The majority of these microorganisms, which are mostly anaerobes, live in the large intestine [ 2 ]. Although some endogenous factors, such as mucin secretions, can affect the microbial balance, human diet is the chief source of energy for their growth. Particularly, non-digestible carbohydrates can highly modify the composition and function of gut microbiota [ 3 ].
Beneficial intestinal microbes ferment these non-digestible dietary substances called prebiotics and obtain their survival energy from degrading indigestible binds of prebiotics [ 4 , 5 ]. As a result of this, prebiotics can selectively influence gut microbiota [ 6 , 7 ].
On the other hand, the gut microbiota affects intestinal functions, such as metabolism and integrity of the intestine. Moreover, they can suppress pathogens in healthy individuals through induction of some immunomodulatory molecules with antagonistic effects against pathogens by lactic acid that is produced by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ].
Various compounds have been tested to determine their function as prebiotics. Fermentation of prebiotics by gut microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids SCFAs , including lactic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. These products can have multiple effects on the body.
As an example, propionate affects T helper 2 in the airways and macrophages, as well as dendritic cells in the bone marrows [ 12 , 13 ]. SCFAs decrease the pH of colon [ 14 , 15 ]. Peptidoglycan is another prebiotics fermentation product that can stimulate the innate immune system against pathogenic microorganisms [ 12 , 16 ].
The structure of prebiotics and the bacterial composition of gut determine the fermentation products [ 14 , 15 ]. The effects of prebiotics on human health are mediated through their degradation products by microorganisms. For example, butyrate influences intestinal epithelial development [ 17 ]. Since SCFAs can diffuse to blood circulation through enterocytes, prebiotics have the ability to affect not only the gastrointestinal tract but also distant site organs [ 18 ].
In this review, we critically elaborate on different aspects of prebiotics, including their definition, types, sources, mechanisms, and clinical applications. The prebiotics concept was introduced for the first time in by Glenn Gibson and Marcel Roberfroid [ 4 ]. This definition was almost unchanged for more than 15 years.
Although not all the prebiotics are carbohydrates, the following two criteria can be exploited to distinguish fiber from carbohydrate-derived prebiotics: i fibers are carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization DP equal or higher than 3 and ii endogenous enzymes in the small intestine cannot hydrolyze them. It should be taken into account that the fiber solubility or fermentability is not crucial [ 20 , 21 ].
There are also some revised definitions for prebiotics published in the scientific literature [ 22 ]. However, the above-mentioned definition, which was given in , has been accepted in recent years. Despite the absence of a consensus definition, the important part of the original and other definitions is that the consumption of prebiotics is associated with human well-being. In , Scott et al. A review on the evolution of prebiotics concept through history can be found in a previous publication [ 23 ], and the debate on their definition is still ongoing [ 25 ].
There are many types of prebiotics. The majority of them are a subset of carbohydrate groups and are mostly oligosaccharide carbohydrates OSCs. The relevant articles are mainly on OSCs, but there are also some pieces of evidence proving that prebiotics are not only carbohydrates. This category consists of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide or oligofructose. Previously, some studies implicated that fructans can stimulate lactic acid bacteria selectively.
However, over recent years, there are some investigations showing that the chain length of fructans is an important criterion to determine which bacteria can ferment them [ 26 ].
Therefore, other bacterial species can also be promoted directly or indirectly by fructans. Galacto-oligosaccharides GOS , the product of lactose extension, are classified into two subgroups: i the GOS with excess galactose at C 3 , C 4 or C 6 and ii the GOS manufactured from lactose through enzymatic trans-glycosylation.
GOSs can greatly stimulate Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Bifidobacteria in infants have shown high incorporation with GOS. Enterobacteria , Bacteroidetes , and Firmicutes are also stimulated by GOS, but to a lesser extent than Bifidobacteria [ 2 ]. There are some GOSs derived from lactulose, the isomer of lactose.
This lactulose-derived GOSs are also considered as prebiotics [ 19 ]. Besides these types of GOS, the other types are based on sucrose extension named raffinose family oligosaccharides RFO. The effect of RFO on gut microbiota has not been elucidated yet [ 28 , 29 ]. There is a kind of starch that is resistant to the upper gut digestion known as resistant starch RS. RS can promote health by producing a high level of butyrate; so it has been suggested to be classified as a prebiotic [ 30 ].
Various groups of Firmicutes show the highest incorporation with a high amount of RS [ 3 ]. An in vitro study demonstrated that RS could also be degraded by Ruminococcus bromii , and Bifidobacterium adolescentis , and also to a lesser extent by Eubacterium rectale and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
However, in the mixed bacterial and fecal incubations, RS degradation is impossible in the absence of R. Polydextrose is a glucose-derived oligosaccharide. It consists of glucan with a lot of branches and glycosidic linkages. There is some evidence that it can stimulate Bifidobacteria , but it has not been confirmed yet [ 32 ]. Some oligosaccharides are originated from a polysaccharide known as pectin. This type of oligosaccharide is called pectic oligosaccharide POS.
They are based on the extension of galacturonic acid homogalacturonan or rhamnose rhamnogalacturonan I. The carboxyl groups may be substituted with methyl esterification, and the structure can be acetylated at C 2 or C 3. Various types of sugars e. Their structures vary significantly depending on the sources of POSs [ 34 ].
Although carbohydrates are more likely to meet the criteria of prebiotics definition, there are some compounds that are not classified as carbohydrates but are recommended to be classified as prebiotics, such as cocoa-derived flavanols. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that flavanols can stimulate lactic acid bacteria [ 35 ]. Prebiotics play an important role in human health. Because of their low concentration in foods, they are manufactured on industrial large scales.
Some of the prebiotics are produced by using lactose, sucrose, and starch as raw material [ 37 , 38 ]. Since most prebiotics are classified as GOS and FOS regarding industrial scale Figure 1 , there are many relevant studies on their production. Prebiotics exist in human diets in small concentration. Since they have crucial roles in health maintenance, they are manufactured on industrial large scales. FOS exists in about 36, plants [ 39 ]; however, the concentration of FOS in these sources is not enough to have prebiotics effects.
Therefore, FOS should be synthesized. There are various FOS production methods, which have been explained by several authors [ 40 , 41 ]. FOS can be synthesized chemically by using glycosidase and glycosyl-transferase [ 42 ]. The compounds that are used in these reactions are hazardous and costly, and the concentration of the end product FOS is very low.
Thus, it cannot be produced on an industrial scale [ 43 ]. FTase produces FOS from sucrose by transferring one to three molecules of fructose. Several microorganisms have FTase, such as Fusarium sp.
Among these microorganisms, Aspergillus niger and Aureobasidium pullulans are mostly used in the industry [ 49 ]. For FOS production, the whole cell of a microorganism or free enzyme can be used [ 40 , 45 , 50 ]. There are different factors that can affect the concentration of produced FOS.
Glucose, which is a co-product of fermentation, inhibits trans-glycosylation [ 40 , 51 ]. Therefore, removing glucose and sucrose residues is a critical step to achieving higher yields of FOS fermentation. The glucose produced during FOS fermentation is converted to gluconic acid by glucose oxidase. Unlike glucose, gluconic acid is able to be removed by ion-exchange resins or by coagulation with calcium carbonate CaCO 3 [ 52 ].
Glucose can be separated from FOS through nanofiltration methods. Sorbitol and FOS are also produced in small amounts during fermentation of sucrose by Z. GOSs were first chemically synthesized by nucleophilic and electrophilic displacement, but this method is currently deemed to be uneconomical at the industrial scale [ 60 , 61 ].
The key enzymes for GOS formation are galactosyl-transferase and galactosidase. Galactosyl-transferase is a stereoselective enzyme that can produce GOS in high quantities [ 61 ]. Nevertheless, the bio-catalysis of GOS via galactosyl-transferase is so costly, because this reaction needs nucleotide sugars as a donor.
There are some approaches to decrease the cost of this reaction, such as globotriose production [ 60 , 62 ] or using human milk oligosaccharides [ 63 , 64 ]. Formation of GOS by means of galactosidase is much cheaper than galactosyl-transferases. However, galactosidase produces GOS in lower quantities, and this enzyme is less stereospecific than galactosyl-transferase.
The amount of GOS produced by galactosidase can be improved in different ways: i increasing the concentration of donors and acceptors in the reaction, ii lowering water activity of the reaction, iii shifting the reaction equilibrium to the end product direction by the product elimination in the medium, and iv altering the synthesis conditions [ 60 , 65 ].
17 Great Probiotic Foods for Better Gut Health
Disclaimer: Always consult your physician before beginning any prebiotic or probiotic supplements. Gut health is a hot topic in the health world these days, and prebiotics and probiotics seem to be at the center of the discussion. A lot of gastrointestinal problems can stem from not having the right level of good bacteria in your digestive tract. The good bacteria in your gut helps with a handful of biological tasks, like staving off inflammation and protecting you from harmful infections. If only we could give these little guys a high-five!
The 19 Best Prebiotic Foods You Should Eat
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs.
This fermentation process feeds beneficial bacteria colonies including probiotic bacteria and helps to increase the number of desirable bacteria in our digestive systems also called the gut that are associated with better health and reduced disease risk. Probiotics are also available in pill form and as an added ingredient in products like yogurt and health drinks. While many types of bacteria are classified as probiotics, most come from two groups: [Laurence ]. A helpful metaphor to understand the difference between a prebiotic and a probiotic may be a garden.
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The Top 33 Prebiotic Foods for Your Digestive System
This helps the gut bacteria produce nutrients for your colon cells and leads to a healthier digestive system 1. Some of these nutrients include short-chain fatty acids like butyrate, acetate and propionate 2. These fatty acids can also be absorbed into the bloodstream and improve metabolic health 2. However, pre biotics should not be confused with pro biotics. For more, read this article that explains the differences. The inulin in chicory root nourishes the gut bacteria, improves digestion and helps relieve constipation 3 , 4. It can also help increase bile production, which improves fat digestion 5.
Prebiotics are a type of fiber that the human body cannot digest. They serve as food for probiotics, which are tiny living microorganisms, including bacteria and yeast. Both prebiotics and probiotics may support helpful bacteria and other organisms in the gut. For more research-backed information about the microbiome and how it affects your health, please visit our dedicated hub. Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body in building and maintaining a healthy colony of bacteria and other microorganisms, which supports the gut and aids digestion. These food components help promote beneficial bacteria by providing food and creating an environment where microorganisms can flourish. Prebiotics are present in fiber-rich foods , such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Health Details: probioticcapsule or onsuming probiotic foods, discontinue the probiotic source and consult a health care provider. Health Details: Probiotic Foods Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are present in many foods and supplements. They help the immune system function properly, aid digestion by breaking down food, prevent harmful list of probiotics pdf. Probiotics is one of them. Health Details: Yogurt is one of the best sources of probiotics, which are friendly bacteria that can improve your health.
Prebiotics: These are fiber-rich foods that help probiotics flourish by providing a steady, nutrient-rich diet. When probiotics break down prebiotics in the colon, they.
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