Difference Between Spermatogenesis And Oogenesis PdfBy Sabas M. In and pdf 13.04.2021 at 13:43 4 min read
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Steven A. Spermatogenesis is a long and complex process that, despite the shared overall goal of producing the male gamete, displays striking amounts of interspecific diversity. In this review, we argue that sperm competition has been an important selection pressure acting on multiple aspects of spermatogenesis, causing variation in the number and morphology of sperm produced, and in the molecular and cellular processes by which this happens.
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- 43.3C: Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis)
- Human Reproduction
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The difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is mainly due to the following factors like the process, occurrence and the product formed after gametogenesis. Process : The process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis is different, in which a former produce sperm cells from a spermatogonium and the latter produce ovum from an oogonium. Occurrence : Spermatogenesis occurs inside the seminiferous tubules of a testis, whereas oogenesis occurs inside the ovary. The sperm cells are the product formed in the spermatogenesis, which is flagellated, i. On the contrary, ova is the product produced from the oogonia, which are non-motile.
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Gametogenesis occurs when a haploid cell n is formed from a diploid cell 2n through meiosis. We call gametogenesis in the male spermatogenesis and it produces spermatozoa. In the female, we call it oogenesis. It results in the formation of ova. This article covers both oogenesis and spermatogenesis. This maximises the likelihood of sperm reaching the egg following ejaculation. In the testicles, a blood-testis barrier forms to keep the tubules separate from the systemic circulation.
Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier. This is important in preventing substances found in blood from affecting the developing sperm. These products might include hormones or waste products. It is also important as it prevents the immune system of the male from recognising the sperm as foreign — the sperm are genetically different from the male and will express different surface antigens.
Spermatogonia are the initial pool of diploid cells that divide by mitosis to give two identical cells. This replenishment of spermatogonia means that males are fertile throughout their adult life. Primary spermatocytes then undergo meiosis.
From the seminiferous tubule, cells will travel to the rete testis. Then, cells move to the epididymis where the sperm is stored and undergoes the final stages of maturation. Each of these populations of spermatogenic cells will be at different stages of spermatogenesis.
Oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis in that it begins in the foetus prior to birth. Primordial germ cells which originate in the yolk sac of the embryo move to colonise the cortex of the primordial gonad.
Cell death occurs after this peak to leave 2 million cells. Meiosis I begins before birth and forms primary oocytes. There is therefore a finite supply of ova. Primary oocytes are arranged in the gonads as clusters. They have flattened epithelial cells surrounding them, and this is called the primary follicle.
Once puberty begins, a number of primary oocytes begin to mature each month, although only one of these reaches full maturation to become an oocyte. The primary oocyte is still in meiosis I, but will grow dramatically in this stage. The follicular cells grow and proliferate to form a stratified cuboidal epithelium. These chemicals form the zona pellucida around the primary oocyte. We now call the follicles secondary follicles. In each monthly cycle one of these secondary follicles becomes dominant and develops further under the influence of FSH, LH and oestrogen.
The LH surge induces this stage and meiosis I is now complete. Inside the follicle, 2 unequally sized haploid cells form. One of the daughter cells receives far less cytoplasm than the other and forms the first polar body , which will not go on to form an ovum. Another haploid cell is also formed, known as the secondary oocyte. Both daughter cells then undergo meiosis II. An initial polar body will replicate to give two polar bodies but the secondary oocyte arrests in metaphase of meiosis II.
This happens 3 hours prior to ovulation. Now, the follicle has grown in size and is mature — it is called a Graafian follicle. An LH surge occurs and increases collagenase activity. This is an enzyme that disrupts collagen. Therefore, there is weakening of the follicular wall. This, combined with muscular contractions of the ovarian wall, results in the ovum being released from the ovary.
The ovum is then taken up into the fallopian tube via the fimbriae finger-like projections of the fallopian tube. The secondary oocyte will only complete meiosis II following fertilisation.
Here, it gives off a third polar body. Following meiosis II, a fertilised egg results. If fertilisation does occur, peristaltic movements of the fallopian tube move the egg to the uterus where it can implant into the posterior uterine wall.
This condition has a poorly understood aetiology and patients can present with a wide variety of signs and symptoms, including:. To manage this, doctors need a patient centred approach. This can include managing weight, reducing hyperandrogenism and using medications. Errors in gametogenesis can lead to a number of chromosomal abnormalities including non-disjunction or polyploidies. Non-disjunction occurs when chromosomes fail to separate appropriately.
Polyploidy occurs when there are more than 2 copies of a homologous chromosome in a cell. If fertilisation doesn't occurs, the oocyte degenerates 24 hours after ovulation, remaining arrested in meiosis II.
Excess androgen production and the presence of multiple immature follicles within a woman's ovaries characterise this condition. Once you've finished editing, click 'Submit for Review', and your changes will be reviewed by our team before publishing on the site. Gametogenesis Home Reproductive Embryology Gametogenesis. Protecting the sperm Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier. Forming functional sperm Spermatogonia are the initial pool of diploid cells that divide by mitosis to give two identical cells.
Meiosis I produces two haploid cells, known as secondary spermatocytes. Meiosis II produces four haploid cells, known as spermatids.
Oogenesis Oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis in that it begins in the foetus prior to birth. The primary oocytes undergo 3 stages: Pre-antral.
Pre-Antral Stage The primary oocyte is still in meiosis I, but will grow dramatically in this stage. Ovulation Now, the follicle has grown in size and is mature — it is called a Graafian follicle. Fertilisation — the final stage of female gametogenesis The secondary oocyte will only complete meiosis II following fertilisation. Modifications: vectorization CorelDraw. The original can be viewed here: Gray5. Modifications made by Mysid. Polycystic ovaries on imaging. Errors in Meiosis Errors in gametogenesis can lead to a number of chromosomal abnormalities including non-disjunction or polyploidies.
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43.3C: Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis)
The male reproductive system is a series of organs and glands that produce sperm, fluids, hormones, and enable the ejaculation of sperm. The reproductive tissues of male and female humans develop similarly in utero until a low level of the hormone testosterone is released from male gonads. Testosterone causes the undeveloped tissues to differentiate into male sexual organs. Primitive gonads become testes; other tissues produce a penis and scrotum in males. In the male reproductive system, the scrotum houses the testicles or testes, providing passage for blood vessels, nerves, and muscles related to testicular function.
are the processes of formation of male and female gametes.
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Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are both forms of gametogenesis, in which a diploid gamete cell produces haploid sperm and egg cells, respectively. Gametogenesis, the production of sperm and eggs, takes place through the process of meiosis. The production of sperm is called spermatogenesis and the production of eggs is called oogenesis. Oogenesis occurs in the outermost layers of the ovaries. As with sperm production, oogenesis starts with a germ cell, called an oogonium plural: oogonia , but this cell undergoes mitosis to increase in number, eventually resulting in up to one to two million cells in the embryo.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which Spermatozoa develop from the Germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. Both gametes are haploid cells which contain 23 unpaired chromosomes, which is half of the human genetic makeup.
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the oviduct. Releasing. Spermatogenesis: Sperms are released from the testis. Oogenesis: Oocytes.
Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
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Черт возьми! - выругался коммандер. - Вчера вечером я специально позвонил дежурному лаборатории систем безопасности и попросил его сегодня не выходить на работу. Сьюзан это не удивило. Она не могла припомнить, чтобы когда-то отменялось дежурство, но Стратмор, очевидно, не хотел присутствия непосвященных. Он и мысли не допускал о том, что кто-то из сотрудников лаборатории узнает о Цифровой крепости.
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