# Datums And Map Projections Pdf

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## Map Projections

Error, Accuracy and Precision Geographer's Craft -- A few graphics ; types of errors; sources of inaccuracy and imprecision; problems of propagation and cascading; beware of false precision and false accuracy; dangers of undocumented data; principles of managing error.

Plane 2. Sphere 3. Spheroid or ellipsoid of rotation Accuracy of figures used D. Planar or azimuthal 2. Conic 3. Cylindrical 4. Non-Geometric Mathematical projections E. Of course, the best figures are in commercially published books. To avoid copyright infringements, we have not included the masters for overheads needed here.

Instead, you are directed to the References which lists several basic texts with good illustrations. We have included suggested overheads giving references and specific page numbers to help you locate suitable figures. Greenland in Mercator projection a line drawn with constant orientation e. Plane assume the earth is flat use no projection used for maps only intended to depict general relationships or for maps of small areas at scales larger than , planar representation has little effect on accuracy planar projections are usually assumed when working with air photos 2.

Sphere assume the earth is perfectly spherical does not truly represent the earth's shape 3. Spheroid or ellipsoid of rotation Reference: Ellipsoid of rotation Maling , p. At these points and lines, the scale is constant and equal to that of the globe, no linear distortion is present if the developable surface touches the globe, the projection is called tangent if the surface cuts into the globe, it is called secant where the surface and the globe intersect, there is no distortion where the surface is outside the globe, objects appear bigger than in reality - scales are greater than 1 where the surface is inside the globe, objects appear smaller than in reality and scales are less than 1 Reference: Projection equations Maling , pp.

Non-Geometric Mathematical projections some projections cannot be expressed geometrically have only mathematical descriptions Examples Reference: Non-geometric projections Robinson et al, , p.

Robinson, A. Sale, J. Morrison and P. See pages Snyder, J. Strahler, A. Strahler, See pages for a description of latitude and longitude and various appendices for information on coordinate systems. Define the three standard properties of map projections: equal-area, equidistant and conformal. Discuss the relative importance of each for different applications. What types of applications require which properties?

What type of projection would you expect to be used in the following circumstances, and why? What map projections would you choose in designing a workstation to be used by scientists studying various aspects of global environmental change? By examining the list of SPC systems adopted by the states, what can you deduce about the criteria used to determine the projection adopted and the number of zones used?

You will need a map of the US showing the boundaries of states. Are there any surprising choices? Back to Geography Home Page.

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## Datums and Map Projections: for Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying

Over the years since its first appearance, Datums and Map Projections has become a key book for many students and professionals around the world. Its theme - a practical guide to coordinate reference systems - is as important now as when it was first published, probably more so when we consider the ever growing use of satellite navigation systems and the introduction of web mapping services such as Google Earth. While retaining the benefits of the first edition - clear presentation assuming no prior knowledge, a problem-solving approach, practical examples and the combination of GPS-derived data from other sources - the rewritten and expanded second edition offers very much more: This new edition, now with a co-author, will maintain the book's reputation as the ideal guide to the subject for years to come. Introduction; Coordinates and reference systems; Map projections; Tranformations; Global navigation satellite systems; Case studies - Transformation of GPS data into a local coordinate reference system; Creation of a three-parameter geocentric transformation from an official national transformation; Designing a map projection; Calculations using map grid coordinates; Creating overlays in Google Earth; Appendices - Terminology; Computations with spherical coordinates; Basic geometry of the ellipsoid; The Molodensky equations; Determination of transformation parameters by least squares; References. This remains a vital text for students and practitioners in all areas of geomatics - surveying, remote sensing, GIS, GPS - and much more. Its accessible nature also makes it suitable for anyone with an interest in the subject and its applications.

Datums tell us the latitudes and longi- tudes of features on an ellipsoid. We need to transfer these from the curved ellipsoid to a flat map. A map projection is a.

## Map Projections

Accurately describing locations on Earth is essential to exploration geophysics. The interpretation of fault zones, the surface and bottom locations of a well, and the position and orientation of seismic ground control points and receivers are all dependent on being able to accurately describe where they are. Unfortunately the latitude and longitude of a location and the height are not enough to describe where on Earth it is.

Error, Accuracy and Precision Geographer's Craft -- A few graphics ; types of errors; sources of inaccuracy and imprecision; problems of propagation and cascading; beware of false precision and false accuracy; dangers of undocumented data; principles of managing error. Plane 2. Sphere 3. Spheroid or ellipsoid of rotation Accuracy of figures used D. Planar or azimuthal 2.

Any system that uses maps must take into account three properties: datums, coordinate systems, and projections. These properties specify our model of the Earth and the way in which we specify locations upon it. While it is often not necessary to use more than one datum or coordinate system, it is important to understand them in case there is a need for interoperability with another system or data source which uses a different datum or coordinate system. As such, we will provide a general introduction to these two properties. Unable to display preview.

Отчаяние. Сожаление. Снова и снова тянется его рука, поблескивает кольцо, деформированные пальцы тычутся в лица склонившихся над ним незнакомцев. Он что-то им говорит. Но что .

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Попытался что-то сказать, но голоса не. Зато был другой голос, тот, что звал. Кто-то рядом с ним попытался его приподнять. Он потянулся к голосу.

Ущерб в долларах. - Нам нужна точная цифра, - напомнила Сьюзан. - Оценки ущерба всюду приводятся разные. - Она еще раз взглянула на текст.

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