Herzberg Two Factor Theory Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf

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In , Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory.

The theory is an educated attempt at trying to answer the age-old question: what helps employee motivation? Employee motivation equates to better performance within the company, which often results in better profitability. Here are some of the biggest benefits for companies that can figure out how to motivate employees:.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

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Heliyon , 06 Sep , 6 9 : e DOI: Job satisfaction is an important condition for staff retention in most healthcare Organizations. As a concept, job satisfaction is linked to motivation theory. Herzberg's two factor theory of motivation is used in this study to explore what motivational elements are associated with job satisfaction among medical laboratory professionals MLPs in Oman.

A mixed-method approach was adopted, and focus group discussions FGDs were used for data collection. The FGDs were conducted in the main hospitals in Oman. Data were analyzed by directed content analysis, and frequencies of statements related to factors were calculated for a comparison with the Herzberg theory. The following job dissatisfaction factors hygiene were identified: health and safety, heavy workload, salary, promotion, recognition and organizational policies.

The satisfaction motivators were: relationships with co-workers, relationship with leaders, and professional development. The job dissatisfaction reported was resulted from the absence of hygiene factors and some of the motivators in accordance with Hertzberg's theory. Hospital managers need to address these factors, defined by Hertzberg, in order to improve motivation and job satisfaction. The Sultanate of Oman has reached a level of distinction in its health sector, as the Ministry of Health MOH established a health system framework by enrolling large numbers of expatriate healthcare professionals and by introducing a referral system throughout its healthcare organizations.

The Sultanate's healthcare system requires people management strategies that consider job satisfaction an important factor underpinning of growth, productivity, human resource development, and staff retention. Such strategies must be capable of assessing the satisfaction of any group through various indicators, such as the quality of the health service provided. Additionally, the hospitals provide tertiary and general acute care.

Given the status of these hospitals, it is vital that they are staffed with individuals who are committed to their jobs; as a first step, these individuals must be satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction is the degree of positive affect that an employee feels towards the organization. Job satisfaction is described as being key in promoting feelings of fulfillment through promotions, recognition, salaries, and the achievement of goals Ausloos and Pekalski, George and Jones defined job satisfaction as a collection of feelings that people have towards their job.

Motivation among workers requires an encouraging work environment, which does not happen by chance. A recent study reported that Given this scenario, the purpose of this study was to determine the factors that promote job satisfaction for MLPs and to consider MLPs' work motivation in terms of Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. This study is the first of its kind among this group of health professionals in Oman and contributes to developing an understanding of the factors involved in encouraging satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the medical laboratories of the three hospitals concerned.

By paying due attention to differences in context, the findings may be generalized to other similar facilities. Herzberg used this model to explain that an individual at work can be satisfied and dissatisfied at the same time as these two sets of factors work in separate sequences. For example, hygiene factors dissatisfiers cannot increase or decrease satisfaction; they can affect only the degree of dissatisfaction.

Satisfiers motivational elements need to be harmonized with hygiene factors to achieve job satisfaction at work. Managers in healthcare organizations should understand this relationship. In Maslow's theory of motivation, the lower needs on the proposed pyramid must be met before the higher needs; this idea can be considered parallel to that of motivational and hygiene factors because hygiene factors must be present to allow motivational factors to emerge and thereby prevent job dissatisfaction Maslow, , Maslow, Hence, the motivators in Herzberg's theory are similar to the intrinsic factors higher needs in Maslow's theory.

The extrinsic factors in Maslow's theory resemble the hygiene factors dissatisfiers in Herzberg's two-factor theory. However, their levels must be acceptable in order for the motivation factors to become operative.

Herzberg's two-factor theory has been widely applied in studies on staff satisfaction, but mostly in other industries and for other occupational groups than health professionals. For example, Ruthankoon and Ogunlana tested Herzberg's two factor theory and concluded that different hygiene and motivation factors are applicable in different occupations in the Thai construction industry Ruthankoon and Olu Ogunlana, We have not found comparable studies in health care, and all types of studies on job satisfaction in clinical laboratories are scarce.

In order to explore the views of medical laboratory professionals on their workplace and what factors had a positive or negative effect on their job satisfaction a series of focus group discussions FGD were performed. The advantage of a focus group compared to individual interviews is that the discussion among participants will help to clarify opinions, provoke more in-depth reasoning, and to disclose whether opinions are shared by many.

Whilst a focus group discussion is a qualitative research approach, it also enables a semi-quantitative analysis of statements made. This study employs such a mixed-methods approach. Medical laboratory professionals working in hematology, biochemistry, pathology, and microbiology laboratories including senior and junior staff from the three main hospitals participated in the FGDs: nine groups from the Royal Hospital, five groups from Khoula Hospital, and four groups from Al Nahdha Hospital.

Each group had between six and eight participants Krueger and Casey, To obtain this sample, the author sent a letter describing the purpose of the study to the supervisors of each laboratory and asking MLP volunteers. Anonymity through the use of code names and confidentiality were strictly observed in recognition of the need for good research ethics and the requirements of Omani and Swedish legislation, as well as to preserve personal integrity.

A total of medical laboratory professionals participated in the FGDs. The demography of the participants is exhibited in Appendix I, showing that the participants were representative of all laboratory staff in the three hospitals. The FGDs were moderated by the first author with the support of an observer. The Focus Group discussions gave respondents freedom to express their feelings in order to obtain data representing the purpose of the study. The discussion was facilitated by the first author, following an interview guide, derived from Hertzberg's two factor theory.

The FGD sessions lasted between 60 to 90 min. The recorded material was transcribed by the observer and checked against observational and summary notes made by the moderator immediately after each FGD.

The transcriptions and additions from the notes were scrutinized by directed content analysis, guided by the Hertzberg two-factor theory. Meaning units expressing opinions of motivating and hygiene factors were identified and condensed into categories and further into themes.

This process was done by the moderator and observer independently. Results were compared and consensus reached after discussions. This made it possible to compare the profile of motivating and hygiene factors of medical laboratory professionals with the original theory of Hertzberg. Personal integrity was guaranteed. Participation was voluntary, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants after fully disclosing the purpose of the study.

Data storage and handling complied with the requirements of Swedish legislation on research ethics and personal data. The FGDs recorded the participant's opinions of the individual needs and other factors that affected their job satisfaction at work; these opinions were condensed into categories and from those eight major themes emerged.

The themes are presented together with illustrative citations from the FGDs. Categories and themes related to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction among medical laboratory professionals at Royal, Khoula, and Al Nahdha Hospitals. Poor ventilation and exposure to toxic chemicals were cited reasons in some departments, as well as the receipt of clinical samples without biohazard labels.

The lack of biohazard labels was considered to be due to carelessness of some nurses, posing a risk to the laboratory workers.

The MLPs believed that there was no appreciation or recognition of their good performance even though they worked in a risky environment. They received no compensation for their commitment in the face of such risk, and felt that because they worked behind the scenes, clinicians were unaware of the time they spent processing samples or the hazards involved in their work. FGDs participants identified workload as another dissatisfier, especially when colleagues took unplanned leave, which lead to the accumulation of samples for processing and for others to handle.

In addition, the participants mentioned that the night shift workers were overloaded, irrespective of whether personnel were on leave, because samples referred from other hospitals during the day. Professional development emerged as a satisfaction factor for participants from all three hospitals. Indeed, some hospitals had monthly lectures to discuss interesting cases in their departments, and there were also opportunities to attend courses.

The Al Nahdha Hospital MLPs expressed satisfaction with their professional development, as they were given the chance to attend training sessions.

The Royal hospital MLPs also reported dissatisfaction with their salaries, believing that they deserved higher salaries and bonuses since they had to work more night shifts than MLPs in other hospitals in the country. The MLPs in all three main hospitals the Royal, Al Nahdha, and Khoula Hospitals also noted that they were unhappy with the new Medical and Allied Health Personnel Executive Bylaw, introduced in for paramedical staff, which defined the rules for the employment, promotion, retention development and termination of medical and allied health personnel.

At Al Nahdha Hospital, the new promotion system is by no means clear, there has been no explanation of the system by anyone, and promotions for some technologists have been delayed for a long time. At Khoula Hospital, the MLPs felt that the new Bylaw did not motivate them to work any harder, as the system does not discriminate between a hard worker and others.

I have 26 years of experience. MLPs complained that it was a generic description that was suitable only for junior staff and did not capture what senior staff members do. Other participants from other departments mentioned that, in fact, they did not have job descriptions at all and worked solely based on the instructions of their supervisors.

Appraisals emerged as the second sub-factor mentioned in all three focus groups. All the MLPs were dissatisfied with the appraisal process because MLPs are not shown their annual evaluations, and they do not know what is reported about them central administration.

MLPs can learn about their annual scores only when they apply for higher education. In all three hospitals, the relationships between supervisors and MLPs were good. The MLPs expressed satisfaction with the relationships between co-workers in the laboratories. The themes derived correspond in most instances with the factors of the Hertzberg theory. Salary is a hygiene factor.

As in Hertzberg's theory, the categories identified in the content analysis were could be categorized as hygiene factors motivators; with considerable overlaps, as categories contributed to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction to varying degrees. The percentage of each factor appearing in the satisfying and dissatisfying sequences from FGDs.

The absence of health and safety in all laboratories was the most frequently mentioned source of job dissatisfaction among medical laboratory professionals dissatisfied 16 per cent, and satisfied. This is in agreement with Herzberg's theory. The dissatisfaction among the research population echoes the results found in a previous study with health workers demonstrating that the health and safety hazards that the workers encountered in their work had negative impacts on them Altmaier and Hansen, Maslow's theory of motivation suggests that safety is a lower-order need that must be met before higher-order needs can be satisfied.

A heavy workload quite understandingly leads to job dissatisfaction dissatisfied 15 per cent, and satisfied 7 per cent. Consequently, it is a hygiene factor, not a motivator as predicted in the Herzberg theory. Salary and promotion seem to play a significant role in demotivating the medical laboratory professionals in the three hospitals dissatisfied 14 per cent, and satisfied 5 per cent, 8 per cent respectively.

They expressed that the new Medical and Allied Health Personnel Bylaw recently introduced was unjust since it does not differentiate between old and new employee as to rewards, and promotion is no longer automatically received, but requires that a new position is established.

Herzberg's two-factor theory suggests that salary is a motivator, but that after some time, it tends to become a dissatisfier hygiene factor for employees. In our study, salary is defined as a dissatisfaction factor, while promotion advancement is appreciated by participants in our groups of medical laboratory professionals. The way workers are rewarded effects productivity and, therefore, the quality of care that must be monitored in health organizations WHO,

Pros and Cons of the Motivational Theories

American psychologist Frederick Herzberg is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. What he found was that people who felt good about their jobs gave very different responses from the people who felt bad. Hygiene factors , or extrinsic motivators, tend to represent more tangible, basic needs—i. Extrinsic motivators include status, job security, salary, and fringe benefits. Motivation factors, or intrinsic motivators, tend to represent less tangible, more emotional needs—i. Intrinsic motivators include challenging work, recognition, relationships, and growth potential. According to Herzberg, intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an inverse relationship.

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, also sometimes called the Motivator-Hygiene Theory, postulated that employee satisfaction was based on two sets of factors: Motivators, which when present would lead to increased job satisfaction, and Hygiene factors which create job dissatisfaction if they are absent. Factors he included in motivators were things like recognition, opportunity for advancement, interesting and challenging work, and responsibility. Hygiene factors included pay scale, job security, working conditions and relationships with peers and supervisors. Herzberg's solution for management was to provide an adequate level of the hygiene factors to keep employees from being demotivated, and focus on ways to introduce motivating factors, like empowering employees through job enlargement or rotating employees to give them new and different challenges. While Herzberg did a pretty good job of identifying factors that affect job satisfaction, most people today reconize that these factors can't neatly be grouped into categories for everybody or for any situation. For example, increased pay could be a motivator for some employees, possibly through overtime and piece rates, but only to a certain extent; a working mom who has a fixed schedule due to child care requirements might not at all be motivated by overtime, and asking even the most eager employee to work 20 hour days for extra pay will only motivate for so long. Low pay might be a demotivator for some employees, but someone making a transition into the workforce after a long absence or a senior looking more for the affiliation and activity of work might not be demotivated by low pay.

If you ask people about their job conditions and environment than chances are that only 1 or 2 people would say that they are satisfied with their company and overall environment of the company. Herzberg theory of motivation tries to address employee problems by focusing on factors which give satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction to the employees working in the company. According to Herzberg theory there are two types of factors one set of factors are called motivators which include things like recognition at workplace, opportunities for growth in company and so on while other sets of factors are called hygiene factors which include factors like general working conditions in the company, interpersonal relations with colleagues, salary and so on. According to this theory, the best possible scenario is when a company has high motivators and high hygiene factors which ensure that employees of the company are highly motivated towards the work and have fewer problems with the company. In order to understand more about this theory, one should look at the advantages and disadvantages of Herzberg theory —.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Herzberg Theory

American Frederick Herzberg to was one of the most influential management teachers and consultants of the postwar era. One problem with this approach is that respondents generally associated good times in their jobs with things under their personal control, or for which they could give themselves credit. Bad times, on the other hand, were more often associated with factors in the environment, under the control of management. He concluded that job satisfiers are related to job content and job dissatisfiers are allied to job context. Herzberg labelled satisfiers motivators and called dissatisfiers hygiene factors.

A critical assessment of Herzberg’s theory of motivation

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of Motivation

A research study was conducted by Frederick. Herzberg of Case-Western reserve University and associates. This study consisted of an intensive analysis of the experiences and feeling of Engineers and accountants in 9 different companies in Pittsburg area, U.

What makes people do what they do? What motivates them to make changes? Motivational theories try to explain why people make the decisions that they make, while providing some explanation for how they can motivate themselves and others to improve their behaviors. Each theory is unique.

According to Herzberg theory there are two types of factors one set of factors are called motivators which include things like recognition at.

Reading: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Heliyon , 06 Sep , 6 9 : e DOI: Job satisfaction is an important condition for staff retention in most healthcare Organizations. As a concept, job satisfaction is linked to motivation theory. Herzberg's two factor theory of motivation is used in this study to explore what motivational elements are associated with job satisfaction among medical laboratory professionals MLPs in Oman. A mixed-method approach was adopted, and focus group discussions FGDs were used for data collection.

Herzberg developed the two-factor theory of motivation from an outline learned in nearly 4, interviews. Herzberg in his model suggested that the two-factor theory of motivation impacts people in various modes. However, the Two-factor theory remains a valuable reminder that all jobs have two significant features;. To eliminate potential job dissatisfaction, it is at all times a very important to correct poor job content through;. To maximize job satisfaction, it is a responsibility of management to constantly building satisfier factors into job content through;. The Two-Factor theory suggests that the managers should focus on ensuring the acceptability of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction.

Employee Motivation and the Herzberg Theory

 Да. Немало.

 А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан.  - После цифр стоит какая-то звездочка. Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки. - Осторожно! - сказала Соши.

Все выглядело совсем не так, как несколько минут. ТРАНСТЕКСТ выступал серым силуэтом в слабом сумеречном свете, проникавшем сквозь купол потолка. Все лампы наверху погасли.

Коммандер не спешил с ответом: - Автор алгоритма - частное лицо. - Как же так? - Сьюзан откинулась на спинку стула.  - У нас внизу работают лучшие программисты в мире.

Ну, понимаешь, он криптограф.


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