Tim Maudlin Philosophy Of Physics Space And Time PdfBy Caitlin C. In and pdf 13.04.2021 at 20:52 7 min read
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Philosophy of Physics: Space and Time
In philosophy , philosophy of physics deals with conceptual and interpretational issues in modern physics , many of which overlap with research done by certain kinds of theoretical physicists.
Philosophy of physics can be broadly lumped into three areas:. The existence and nature of space and time or space-time are central topics in the philosophy of physics.
Time is often thought to be a fundamental quantity that is, a quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other quantities , because time seems like a fundamentally basic concept, such that one cannot define it in terms of anything simpler. However, certain theories such as loop quantum gravity claim that spacetime is emergent.
As Carlo Rovelli, one of the founders of loop quantum gravity has said: "No more fields on spacetime: just fields on fields". Currently, the standard time interval called "conventional second ", or simply "second" is defined as 9,,, oscillations of a hyperfine transition in the caesium atom. ISO What time is and how it works follows from the above definition. Time then can be combined mathematically with the fundamental quantities of space and mass to define concepts such as velocity , momentum , energy , and fields.
Both Newton and Galileo ,  as well as most people up until the 20th century, thought that time was the same for everyone everywhere. The modern conception of time is based on Einstein 's theory of relativity and Minkowski 's spacetime , in which rates of time run differently in different inertial frames of reference, and space and time are merged into spacetime. Time may be quantized, with the theoretical smallest time being on the order of the Planck time.
Einstein's general relativity as well as the redshift of the light from receding distant galaxies indicate that the entire Universe and possibly space-time itself began about Einstein's theory of special relativity mostly though not universally made theories of time where there is something metaphysically special about the present seem much less plausible, as the reference-frame-dependence of time seems to not allow the idea of a privileged present moment.
Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, suggest that suitable geometries of spacetime , or certain types of motion in space , may allow time travel into the past and future. Concepts that aid such understanding include the closed timelike curve. Albert Einstein 's special theory of relativity and, by extension, the general theory predicts time dilation that could be interpreted as time travel.
The theory states that, relative to a stationary observer, time appears to pass more slowly for faster-moving bodies: for example, a moving clock will appear to run slow; as a clock approaches the speed of light its hands will appear to nearly stop moving. The effects of this sort of time dilation are discussed further in the popular " twin paradox ".
Although these results are experimentally observable, an intrinsic aspect of Einstein' theory is an equation applicable to the operation of GPS satellites and other high-tech systems used in daily life.
A second, similar type of time travel is permitted by general relativity. In this type a distant observer sees time passing more slowly for a clock at the bottom of a deep gravity well , and a clock lowered into a deep gravity well and pulled back up will indicate that less time has passed compared to a stationary clock that stayed with the distant observer.
Many in the scientific community believe that backward time travel is highly unlikely, because it violates causality  i. For example, what happens if you attempt to go back in time and kill yourself at an earlier stage in your life or your grandfather, which leads to the grandfather paradox?
Stephen Hawking once suggested that the absence of tourists from the future constitutes a strong argument against the existence of time travel— a variant of the Fermi paradox , with time travelers instead of alien visitors. Space is one of the few fundamental quantities in physics , meaning that it cannot be defined via other quantities because there is nothing more fundamental known at present.
Thus, similar to the definition of other fundamental quantities like time and mass , space is defined via measurement. In classical physics , space is a three-dimensional Euclidean space where any position can be described using three coordinates and parameterised by time. Special and general relativity use four-dimensional spacetime rather than three-dimensional space; and currently there are many speculative theories which use more than four spatial dimensions.
Quantum mechanics is a large focus of contemporary philosophy of physics, specifically concerning the correct interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Very broadly, much of the philosophical work that is done in quantum theory is trying to make sense of superposition states:  the property that particles seem to not just be in one determinate position at one time, but are somewhere 'here', and also 'there' at the same time. Such a radical view turns many common sense metaphysical ideas on their head. Much of contemporary philosophy of quantum mechanics aims to make sense of what the very empirically successful formalism of quantum mechanics tells us about the physical world.
The Everett, or many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics claims that the wave-function of a quantum system is telling us claims about the reality of that physical system. It denies wavefunction collapse , and claims that superposition states should be interpreted literally as describing the reality of many-worlds where objects are located, and not simply indicating the indeterminacy of those variables.
This is sometimes argued as a corollary of scientific realism ,  which states that scientific theories aim to give us literally true descriptions of the world. One issue for the Everett interpretation is the role that probability plays on this account. The Everettian account is completely deterministic, whereas probability seems to play an ineliminable role in quantum mechanics. Hence, the dispute between the two views represents a great "chasm.
The uncertainty principle is a mathematical relation asserting an upper limit to the accuracy of the simultaneous measurement of any pair of conjugate variables , e. In the formalism of operator notation , this limit is the evaluation of the commutator of the variables' corresponding operators. The uncertainty principle arose as an answer to the question: How does one measure the location of an electron around a nucleus if an electron is a wave?
When quantum mechanics was developed, it was seen to be a relation between the classical and quantum descriptions of a system using wave mechanics. In March , working in Niels Bohr 's institute, Werner Heisenberg formulated the principle of uncertainty thereby laying the foundation of what became known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Heisenberg had been studying the papers of Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. He discovered a problem with measurement of basic variables in the equations.
His analysis showed that uncertainties, or imprecisions, always turned up if one tried to measure the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time. Heisenberg concluded that these uncertainties or imprecisions in the measurements were not the fault of the experimenter, but fundamental in nature and are inherent mathematical properties of operators in quantum mechanics arising from definitions of these operators.
Within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics the uncertainty principle was taken to mean that on an elementary level, the physical universe does not exist in a deterministic form, but rather as a collection of probabilities, or possible outcomes.
For example, the pattern probability distribution produced by millions of photons passing through a diffraction slit can be calculated using quantum mechanics, but the exact path of each photon cannot be predicted by any known method.
The Copenhagen interpretation holds that it cannot be predicted by any method, not even with theoretically infinitely precise measurements. Aristotelian physics viewed the universe as a sphere with a center. Matter, composed of the classical elements , earth, water, air, and fire, sought to go down towards the center of the universe, the center of the earth, or up, away from it.
Things in the aether such as the moon, the sun, planets, or stars circled the center of the universe. The implicit axioms of Aristotelian physics with respect to movement of matter in space were superseded in Newtonian physics by Newton's First Law of Motion.
Every body perseveres in its state either of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by impressed forces. Nothing has a natural or inherent motion. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , — , was a contemporary of Newton. He contributed a fair amount to the statics and dynamics emerging around him, often disagreeing with Descartes and Newton.
He devised a new theory of motion dynamics based on kinetic energy and potential energy , which posited space as relative, whereas Newton was thoroughly convinced that space was absolute.
An important example of Leibniz's mature physical thinking is his Specimen Dynamicum of Until the discovery of subatomic particles and the quantum mechanics governing them, many of Leibniz's speculative ideas about aspects of nature not reducible to statics and dynamics made little sense. For instance, he anticipated Albert Einstein by arguing, against Newton, that space , time and motion are relative, not absolute:  "As for my own opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is, that I hold it to be an order of coexistences, as time is an order of successions.
Albert Einstein was extremely interested in the philosophical conclusions of his work. He writes:. So many people today—and even professional scientists—seem to me like somebody who has seen thousands of trees but has never seen a forest.
A knowledge of the historic and philosophical background gives that kind of independence from prejudices of his generation from which most scientists are suffering. This independence created by philosophical insight is—in my opinion—the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker after truth.
Thornton, 7 December EA 61— Is there no more valuable work in his specialty? I hear many of my colleagues saying, and I sense it from many more, that they feel this way. I cannot share this sentiment.
Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such an authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they come to be stamped as 'necessities of thought,' 'a priori givens,' etc. For that reason, it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing the long-commonplace concepts and exhibiting [revealing, exposing? By this means, their all-too-great authority will be broken. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Philosophy of space and time. Main article: Time in physics.
Main article: Time travel. Main article: Space. Main article: Interpretation of quantum mechanics. Main article: Many-worlds interpretation. Main article: Uncertainty principle. See also: Ilse Rosenthal-Schneider. Philosophy portal Physics portal. Philosophy of Physics: Space and Time. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 3 October Quantum Gravity. Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics.
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This concise book introduces nonphysicists to the core philosophical issues surrounding the nature and structure of space and time, and is also an ideal resource for physicists interested in the conceptual foundations of space-time theory. Tim Maudlin's broad historical overview examines Aristotelian and Newtonian accounts of space and time, and traces how Galileo's concept. Tim Maudlin's broad historical overview examines Aristotelian and Newtonian accounts of space and time, and traces how Galileo's conceptions of relativity and space-time led to Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Maudlin explains special relativity using a geometrical approach, emphasizing intrinsic space-time structure rather than coordinate systems or reference frames. He gives readers enough detail about special relativity to solve concrete physical problems while presenting general relativity in a more qualitative way, with an informative discussion of the geometrization of gravity, the bending of light, and black holes. Additional topics include the Twins Paradox, the physical aspects of the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction, the constancy of the speed of light, time travel, the direction of time, and more.
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philosophy of physics: space and time pdf
This concise book introduces nonphysicists to the core philosophical issues surrounding the nature and structure of space and time, and is also an ideal resource for physicists interested in the conceptual foundations of space-time theory. Tim Maudlin's broad historical overview examines Aristotelian and Newtonian accounts of space and time, and traces how Galileo's conceptions of relativity and space-time led to Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Maudlin explains special relativity with enough detail to solve concrete physical problems while presenting general relativity in more qualitative terms.
Metaphysics is the theory of being, that is, the most generic account of what there is. As such, it must be informed by empirical science, since we can only discover the nature of the material world through our experience of it. The most general and fundamental account of material reality is provided by physics, hence physics is the scientific discipline most closely allied to if not continuous with metaphysics as a philosophical inquiry.
In philosophy , philosophy of physics deals with conceptual and interpretational issues in modern physics , many of which overlap with research done by certain kinds of theoretical physicists. Philosophy of physics can be broadly lumped into three areas:. The existence and nature of space and time or space-time are central topics in the philosophy of physics.
This course is intended as an introduction to the philosophy of space and time.
Philosophy of Space and Time
Adam Becker. What is real? This is volume one of a two-volume survey of the philosophy of physics. Responsibility Tim Maudlin. He believed that this infinite three-dimensional space exists at every moment of time. It is rally interesting throgh reading through period of time. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Philosophy of Physics: Space and Time.
Harvard Univ. The interpretation part is typically concerned with the question of what understanding of Nature is provided by our best physical theories, e. Philosophy of physics is about the interpretation and critical examination of phys-ical theories and concepts. An understanding of the nature of space and time is central to both philosophy and physics. I present a discussion of some open issues in the philosophy of space-time theories. Emphasis is put on the ontological nature of space and time, the relation between determinism and predictability,the origin of irreversibleprocesses in an expandingUniverse, and the compatibility of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Черный лед. В центре помещения из пола торчала, подобно носу исполинской торпеды, верхняя часть машины, ради которой было возведено все здание. Ее черный лоснящийся верх поднимался на двадцать три фута, а сама она уходила далеко вниз, под пол. Своей гладкой окружной формой она напоминала дельфина-косатку, застывшего от холода в схваченном морозом море. Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью.
Space and Time. Tim Maudlin Read Online · Download PDF. Save Philosophy of physics concerns the whole of physical reality, considered in a usefully generic way. CHAPTER ONE Classical Accounts of Space and Time. (pp. ).
Week 2: Newton on space and time (Oct 24)
- Он направился к полке с ячейками для ключей и почты. - Быть может, я мог бы позвонить в номер и… - Простите, - сказал консьерж, и вся его любезность мгновенно улетучилась. - В Альфонсо Тринадцатом строгие правила охраны приватности постояльцев. Беккера не устраивала перспектива ждать десять часов, пока тучный немец со своей спутницей спустятся к завтраку. - Я понимаю, - сказал .
И он согласился поехать. - Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ. Он не мог отказаться.
- Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути. Постарайтесь пройти по нему до конца. Сьюзан вздохнула: - Программа принимает ключ только в цифровой форме. Мне кажется, что тут содержится некий намек на то, что это за цифра. В тексте названы Хиросима и Нагасаки, города, разрушенные атомными бомбами.
Извини, Сью, я пошутил. Сьюзан быстро проскочила мимо него и вышла из комнаты. Проходя вдоль стеклянной стены, она ощутила на себе сверлящий взгляд Хейла.
На полке с компьютерными деталями, спрятанными за накопителем носителей информации, лежала кружка выпускника Стэнфордского университета и тестер. Не коснувшись краев, он вытащил из нее ключ Медеко. - Поразительно, - пробурчал он, - что сотрудникам лаборатории систем безопасности ничего об этом не известно. ГЛАВА 47 - Шифр ценой в миллиард долларов? - усмехнулась Мидж, столкнувшись с Бринкерхоффом в коридоре.