American Culture And Traditions PdfBy Aubert C. In and pdf 13.04.2021 at 22:40 6 min read
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Young people generally are often portrayed as being full of ambitions and hopes for the world and, therefore, important drivers of cultural change. The United Nations Population Fund describes well this expectation on young people as shapers of the culture of the future: As they grow through adolescence, young people develop their identity and become autonomous individuals. They develop their own ways of perceiving, appreciating, classifying and distinguishing issues, and the codes, symbols and language in which to express them.
- Culture and Sport
- American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States
- Culture in South America
- Culture of the United States
Culture and Sport
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African , Native American , Asian , Pacific Island , and Latin American people and their cultures. It also has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect , music , arts , social habits , cuisine , and folklore.
The United States is ethnically and racially diverse as a result of large-scale migration throughout its history, and through African-American slavery and emancipation. The varieties of English people, as opposed to the other peoples on the British Isles, were the overwhelming majority ethnic group in the 17th century population of the colonies in was , and were The English ethnic group contributed to the major cultural and social mindset and attitudes that evolved into the American character.
Large non-English immigrant populations from the s to , such as the Germans , or more , Scotch Irish , , added enriched and modified the English cultural substrate, The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America, Ed. John Mack Faragher, , pp. The religious outlook was some versions of Protestantism 1. Jeffersonian democracy was a foundational American cultural innovation, which is still a core part of the country's identity.
Major cultural influences have been brought by historical immigration, especially from Germany in much of the country,  Ireland and Italy in the Northeast, Japan in Hawaii. Latin American culture is especially pronounced in former Spanish areas but has also been introduced by immigration, as has Asian American cultures especially on the West Coast.
Native culture remains strong in areas with large undisturbed or relocated populations, including traditional government and communal organization of property now legally managed by Indian reservations large reservations are mostly in the West, especially Arizona and South Dakota. The fate of native culture after contact with Europeans is quite varied.
In contrast, the Hawaiian language and culture of the Native Hawaiians has survived in Hawaii and mixed with that of immigrants from the mainland U. It occasionally influences mainstream American culture with notable exports like surfing and Hawaiian shirts.
Most languages native to what is now U. The most common native languages include Samoan , Hawaiian , Navajo language , Cherokee , Sioux , and a spectrum of Inuit languages. See Indigenous languages of the Americas for a fuller listing, plus Chamorro , and Carolinian in the Pacific territories. American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements.
Despite certain consistent ideological principles e. The flexibility of U. The United States has traditionally been thought of as a melting pot , with immigrants contributing to but eventually assimilating with mainstream American culture.
However, beginning in the s and continuing on in the present day, the country trends towards cultural diversity , pluralism , and the image of a salad bowl instead. Due to the extent of American culture, there are many integrated but unique social subcultures within the United States, some not tied to any particular geography.
The cultural affiliations an individual in the United States may have commonly depended on social class , political orientation and a multitude of demographic characteristics such as religious background, occupation, and ethnic group membership. Colonists from the United States formed the now-independent country of Liberia. The west coast of the continental United States, consisting of California, Oregon , and Washington state, is also sometimes referred to as the Left Coast , indicating its left-leaning political orientation and tendency towards social liberalism.
The South is sometimes informally called the " Bible Belt " due to socially conservative evangelical Protestantism , which is a significant part of the region's culture. Christian church attendance across all denominations is generally higher there than the national average. This region is usually contrasted with the mainline Protestantism and Catholicism of the Northeast , the religiously diverse Midwest and Great Lakes , the Mormon Corridor in Utah and southern Idaho , and the relatively secular West.
Strong cultural differences have a long history in the U. Social and economic tensions between the Northern and Southern states were so severe that they eventually caused the South to declare itself an independent nation, the Confederate States of America ; thus initiating the American Civil War. Although the United States has no official language at the federal level, 28 states have passed legislation making English the official language, and it is considered to be the de facto national language.
According to the U. The national dialect is known as American English , which itself consists of numerous regional dialects, but has some shared unifying features that distinguish it from other national varieties of English. A standard dialect called " General American " analogous in some respects to the received pronunciation elsewhere in the English-speaking world , lacking the distinctive noticeable features of any particular region, is believed by some to exist as well; it is sometimes regionally associated with the Midwest.
American Sign Language , used mainly by the deaf, is also native to the United States. More than languages besides English have native speakers in the United States—some are spoken by indigenous peoples about living languages and others imported by immigrants. In fact, English is not the first language of most immigrants in the US, though many do arrive knowing how to speak it, especially from countries where English is broadly used.
According to the census, there are nearly 30 million native speakers of Spanish in the United States. Spanish has official status in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , where it is the primary language spoken, and the state of New Mexico ; various smaller Spanish enclaves exist around the country as well. Indigenous languages of the United States include the Native-American languages including Navajo , Yupik , Dakota , and Apache , which are spoken on the country's numerous Indian reservations and at cultural events such as pow wows ; Hawaiian , which has official status in the state of Hawaii ; Chamorro , which has official status in the commonwealths of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ; Carolinian , which has official status in the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands ; and Samoan , which has official status in the commonwealth of American Samoa.
In the lateth and earlyth centuries, American artists primarily painted landscapes and portraits in a realistic style or that which looked to Europe for answers on technique: for example, John Singleton Copley was born in Boston, but most of his portraiture for which he is famous follow the trends of British painters like Thomas Gainsborough and the transitional period between Rococo and Neoclassicism.
The later 18th century was a time when the United States was just an infant as a nation and as far away from the phenomenon where artists would receive training as craftsmen by apprenticeship and later seeking a fortune as a professional, ideally getting a patron: Many artists benefited from the patronage of Grand Tourists eager to procure mementos of their travels.
There were no temples of Rome or grand nobility to be found in the Thirteen Colonies. Later developments of the 19th century brought America one of its earliest native homegrown movements, like the Hudson River School and portrait artists with a uniquely American flavor like Winslow Homer. A parallel development taking shape in rural America was the American craft movement, which began as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
As the nation grew wealthier, it had patrons able to buy the works of European painters and attract foreign talent willing to teach methods and techniques from Europe to willing students as well as artists themselves; photography became a very popular medium for both journalism and in time as a medium in its own right with America having plenty of open spaces of natural beauty and growing cities in the East teeming with new arrivals and new buildings.
Painting in the United States today covers a vast range of styles. Architecture in the United States is regionally diverse and has been shaped by many external forces. Currently, the overriding theme of American Architecture is modernity, as manifest in the skyscrapers of the 20th century, with domestic and residential architecture greatly varying according to local tastes and climate. Theater of the United States is based in the Western tradition and did not take on a unique dramatic identity until the emergence of Eugene O'Neill in the early twentieth century, now considered by many to be the father of American drama.
After this fertile period, American theater broke new ground, artistically, with the absurdist forms of Edward Albee in the s. Social commentary has also been a preoccupation of American theater, often addressing issues not discussed in the mainstream.
Broadway is one of the largest theater communities in the world and is the epicenter of American commercial theater. American music styles and influences such as rock and roll , jazz , rock , techno , soul , country , hip-hop , blues and music based on them can be heard all over the world.
Music in the U. It includes African-American influence in the 20th century. The first half of this century is famous for jazz, introduced by African-Americans. According to music journalist Robert Christgau , "pop music is more African than any other facet of American culture. The best-selling band is The Eagles. Television is a major mass media of the United States. Household ownership of television sets in the country is The peak ownership percentage of households with at least one television set occurred during the —97 season, with As of August , approximately ,, American households own at least one television set.
Due to a recent surge in the number and popularity of critically acclaimed television series, many critics have said that American television is currently enjoying a golden age. There is a regard for scientific advancement and technological innovation in American culture, resulting in the creation of many modern innovations.
The great American inventors include Robert Fulton the steamboat ; Samuel Morse the telegraph ; Eli Whitney the cotton gin , interchangeable parts ; Cyrus McCormick the reaper ; and Thomas Edison with more than a thousand inventions credited to his name.
Most of the new technological innovations over the 20th and 21st centuries were either first invented in the United States, first widely adopted by Americans, or both.
Examples include the lightbulb , the airplane , the transistor , the atomic bomb , nuclear power , the personal computer , the iPod , video games , online shopping , and the development of the Internet. This propensity for application of scientific ideas continued throughout the 20th century with innovations that held strong international benefits.
The twentieth century saw the arrival of the Space Age , the Information Age , and a renaissance in the health sciences. This culminated in cultural milestones such as the Apollo moon landings , the creation of the Personal Computer, and the sequencing effort called the Human Genome Project.
Throughout its history, American culture has made significant gains through the open immigration of accomplished scientists. Accomplished scientists include Scottish-American scientist Alexander Graham Bell , who developed and patented the telephone and other devices; German scientist Charles Steinmetz , who developed new alternating-current electrical systems in ; Russian scientist Vladimir Zworykin , who invented the motion camera in ; Serb scientist Nikola Tesla who patented a brushless electrical induction motor based on rotating magnetic fields in With the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, a large number of Jewish scientists fled Germany and immigrated to the country, including theoretical physicist Albert Einstein in Education in the United States is and has historically been provided mainly by the government.
Control and funding come from three levels: federal , state , and local. School attendance is mandatory and nearly universal at the elementary and high school levels often known outside the United States as the primary and secondary levels. Students have the option of having their education held in public schools , private schools, or home school. In most public and private schools, education is divided into three levels: elementary school , junior high school also often called middle school , and high school.
In almost all schools at these levels, children are divided by age groups into grades. Post-secondary education , better known as "college" in the United States, is generally governed separately from the elementary and high school system. In the year , there were Of these, 72 percent aged 12 to 17 were judged academically "on track" for their age enrolled in school at or above grade level. Of those enrolled in compulsory education, 5.
Among the country's adult population, over 85 percent have completed high school and 27 percent have received a bachelor's degree or higher. Among developed countries , the U.
The most popular religion in the U. Although participation in organized religion has been diminishing, the public life and popular culture of the United States incorporates many Christian ideals specifically about redemption, salvation, conscience, and morality. Examples are popular culture obsessions with confession and forgiveness, which extends from reality television to twelve-step meetings.
Americans expect public figures to confess and have public penitence for any sins or moral wrongdoings they may have caused.
Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by English settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination or persecution: Pennsylvania was established by Quakers , Maryland by Roman Catholics, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony by Puritans.
They were convinced that the democratic form of government was the will of God. Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , the framers of the United States Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the central government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise.
In the following decades, the animating spirit behind the constitution's Establishment Clause led to the disestablishment of the official religions within the member states. The framers were mainly influenced by secular, Enlightenment ideals, but they also considered the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups who did not want to be under the power or influence of a state religion that did not represent them.
He is always in alliance with the despot. The United States observes holidays derived from events in American history , Christian traditions , and national patriarchs.
American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States
From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition. T he arena of conflict between these communities is changing rapidly, primarily due to the technological innovations of the information age and the confrontation of cultures. No longer are geographical boundaries adequate to separate these cultures. At the same time, Muslims of the diaspora are creating religious and cultural enclaves using Arabsat and the Internet, as well as traditional channels. Yet, recent Islamic migrants to Western nations face the dilemma of finding their authentic voice in popular Western culture, balanced against their fears of cultural assimilation and loss of identity. They seek to know how is it possible to move toward the center of Western culture without compromising deeply-held religious beliefs and traditions.
Ghana, formerly the British colony of the Gold Coast, assumes a special prominence as the first African country to acquire independence from European rule. Ghanaian politicians marked this important transition by replacing the territory's colonial label with the name of a great indigenous civilization of the past. While somewhat mythical, these evocations of noble origins, in combination with a rich cultural heritage and a militant nationalist movement, have provided this ethnically diverse country with unifying symbols and a sense of common identity and destiny. Over forty years of political and economic setbacks since independence have tempered national pride and optimism. Yet, the Ghanaian people have maintained a society free from serious internal conflict and continue to develop their considerable natural, human, and cultural resources.
Culture in South America
You will gain an understanding of a number of key areas including:. Doing busines in the USA or working with Americans? Why not ensure the success of your business venture by enrolling on our USA Online Cultural Awareness Course offering detailed country and culture information. Remember this is only a very basic level introduction to American culture and the people; it can not account for the diversity within US society and is not meant in any way to stereotype all American people you may meet! There is no official language in the USA although English specifically American English is the primary language used for legislation, regulations, executive orders, treaties, federal court rulings, and all other official pronouncements.
The culture of South America today stems from a diverse set of cultural traditions, dating back to those of pre-Columbian civilisations and indigenous tribes, which have mixed with those of African slaves as well as Asian and European immigrants. This vibrant and unique cultural mix is reflected not only in popular culture, but food, architecture, religion and music across the continent, making it a fascinating part of the world to visit. Although many of the countries in South America were formed fairly recently, indigenous tribes and civilisations had been long established in South America before Spanish and Portuguese colonialists arrived. Remnants of these cultures remain throughout the continent.
NCBI Bookshelf. To better understand what happens inside the clinical setting, this chapter looks outside. It reveals the diverse effects of culture and society on mental health, mental illness, and mental health services.
Culture of the United States
American culture encompasses the customs and traditions of the United States. The United States is the third largest country in the world with a population of more than million, according to the U. Census Bureau. A child is born every 8 seconds, and a person dies every 12 seconds. In addition to Native Americans who were already living on the continent, the population of the United States was built on immigration from other countries.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African , Native American , Asian , Pacific Island , and Latin American people and their cultures. It also has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect , music , arts , social habits , cuisine , and folklore. The United States is ethnically and racially diverse as a result of large-scale migration throughout its history, and through African-American slavery and emancipation. The varieties of English people, as opposed to the other peoples on the British Isles, were the overwhelming majority ethnic group in the 17th century population of the colonies in was , and were The English ethnic group contributed to the major cultural and social mindset and attitudes that evolved into the American character. Large non-English immigrant populations from the s to , such as the Germans , or more , Scotch Irish , , added enriched and modified the English cultural substrate, The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America, Ed. John Mack Faragher, , pp.
Все посмотрели на экран. PFEE SESN RETM MFHA IRWE ENET SHAS DCNS IIAA IEER OOIG MEEN NRMA BRNK FBLE LODI Улыбалась одна только Сьюзан. - Нечто знакомое, - сказала. - Блоки из четырех знаков, ну прямо ЭНИГМА. Директор понимающе кивнул. ЭНИГМА, это двенадцатитонное чудовище нацистов, была самой известной в истории шифровальной машиной. Там тоже были группы из четырех знаков.
With such a large population, many would believe that Filipinos and Filipino Americans would have a large community. Page 6 and political influence; however.
Он схватился руками за боковые стороны проема и, одним движением вбросив свое тело внутрь, тяжело рухнул на лестницу. Халохот услышал, как где-то ниже тело Беккера упало на каменные ступеньки, и бросился вниз, сжимая в руке пистолет. В поле его зрения попало окно. Здесь. Халохот приблизился к внешней стене и стал целиться. Ноги Беккера скрылись из виду за поворотом, и Халохот выстрелил, но тут же понял, что выстрел пришелся в пустоту. Пуля срикошетила от стены.
- Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились. - Сегодня суббота. Чем мы обязаны. Хейл невинно улыбнулся: - Просто хотел убедиться, что ноги меня еще носят. - Понимаю.
Дверь высотой в шесть метров закрылась с гулким стуком, и Беккер оказался заперт в Божьем доме. Он закрыл глаза и постарался сползти на скамье как можно ниже: он единственный в церкви был не в черном. Откуда-то донеслись звуки песнопения. В задней части церкви между скамьями продвигался человек, стараясь держаться в тени. Ему удалось проскользнуть внутрь в последнюю секунду перед тем, как дверь закрылась.
Он кивнул: - Чтобы предупредить. - Предупредить. Он же вас ненавидит. - Он позвонил и предупредил, что заканчивает работу над алгоритмом, создающим абсолютно стойкие шифры.
Фонд постоянно выступал против того, что именовалось им оруэлловскими средствами подслушивания, имеющимися в распоряжении правительственных агентств, прежде всего АНБ. Этот фонд был для Стратмора постоянной головной болью. - Не вижу ничего нового, - сказала Сьюзан.